Mastitis is inflammation of the breast tissue with or without infection. The most common form of mastitis is associated with lactation in the first few weeks after birth. Non-lactational mastitis includes periductal mastitis and idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM). Lactational mastitis is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus that is introduced into the breast milk during breastfeeding. The etiology of non-lactational mastitis is poorly understood, but periductal mastitis is commonly associated with smoking, and IGM is frequently associated with Corynebacterium. Patients present with edema, erythema, tenderness, and, possibly, a mass in the breast. Diagnosis is usually clinical, although ultrasound, cultures, and biopsy may be required in some cases. Management involves antibiotics, analgesics, drainage of any abscesses, and surgical duct excision for periductal mastitis.