Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine concerned with studying the structure, function, and diseases of the eye. This includes conditions caused by traumatic injuries due to external forces, as well as conditions of neoplastic nature. These conditions can include fractures of the bony orbit, abrasions or ulcers of the superficial tissues of the eye, ocular melanoma, and retinoblastoma. A solid grasp of the relevant anatomy and physiology of the eye and surrounding structures allows for the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of these conditions. Being able to accurately perform and interpret a fundoscopic exam is also crucial.