Viruses: Viral Genomes

by Vincent Racaniello, PhD

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    Hello and welcome to Viruses: Viral Genomes. We are going to be digging a little deeper into each of the seven different viral genome types, defined by the Baltimore scheme. And after you've listened to this lecture you should be able to know examples of human pathogens from each of these seven different genome types. You will have an overview of how messenger RNA is produced from each of these seven genomes. And you'll understand how infectious viruses are produced from nucleic acids. Let's start with viruses that have double-stranded DNA genomes. And I want to mention five different viruses in this category. Now the first are the adenoviruses. Now we are using here the family designation for these viruses, so adenoviruses would be Adenoviridae, families end in a viridae, and Adenoviridae are unusual looking viruses as you can see. They cause human respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. Then we have the Herpesviridae. These herpes viruses are in all of us. You have a herpes virus infection, you probably have many and I certainly do. We acquire these when we were young and they remain with us for our lifetimes. The Papilloma viruses are rather small viruses. These are the agents of warts, and importantly, cervical and anal genital cancers. The polyomaviridae contains viruses that infect everyone, almost all of the human population, but they only cause disease in people who are immunosuppressed. And finally, the Poxviridae family contains the important human pathogen smallpox virus, which was eradicated in the 1970s. It no longer exists on the planet Earth, except in two laboratories. So these viruses all have in common the fact that their genome is double- stranded DNA, and you can see that on the right-hand part of the screen here. That DNA, when it gets into a cell,...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Viruses: Viral Genomes by Vincent Racaniello, PhD is from the course Viruses. It contains the following chapters:

    • Viruses: Viral Genomes
    • dsDNA Genomes
    • Gapped dsDNA Genomes
    • ssDNA Genomes
    • RNA Genomes
    • ssRNA: (+) Sense Genomes
    • ssRNA: (-) Sense Genomes
    • Ambiense RNA Genomes
    • Viral Genomes: Learning Outcomes

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. dsDNA
    2. Gapped dsDNA
    3. Linear ssDNA
    4. Circular ssDNA
    1. Positive sense single stranded RNA genomes may be translated directly by the host cell ribosome to make viral protein.
    2. Double stranded RNA genomes can be directly translated to make viral protein by ribosomes.
    3. The positive sense RNA strand of a double stranded RNA virus has the sole purpose of serving as a template for viral replication.
    4. RNA genomes can be copied by host cell RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.
    5. Positive sense single stranded RNA virus replication cycles do not require a negative strand intermediate.
    1. A modern validation of the Hershey-Chase experiment
    2. Introduction of viral proteins into cells
    3. Production of infectious virus after transformation of cells by viral DNA
    4. A way to make clonal virus stocks by plaque assay
    5. A way to make mutations by treating viruses with ultraviolet light

    Author of lecture Viruses: Viral Genomes

     Vincent Racaniello, PhD

    Vincent Racaniello, PhD

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