Full comprehension of ophthalmic pathologies requires an understanding of ocular anatomy. This includes the specific structures, division, segments, irrigation, and innervation of the ocular globe and its surrounding structures. Likewise, the basic concepts of ocular physiology are crucial. This includes the fundamentals of light refraction within the eye chambers and the conjugation of the image coming from both eyes into a panoramic view in the occipital lobe. A solid grasp of these concepts allows for the early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of dozens of conditions.