DNA Repair & Genetic Mutations

by Georgina Cornwall, PhD

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    Now that you know all about transcription and translation, I would like to introduce you to genetic mutations and DNA repair. The ability for a cell to be able to repair its own DNA is critical for its existence. By the end of this lecture, you will be able to describe some of the means of DNA repair as well as distinguish between point and chromosomal mutations and discuss the implications of a variety of different mutation types. Let us begin by looking at what a mutation is. It is something that is a change in DNA that is caused by a mutagen, something that causes damage in DNA. There are a number of different mutagens we could be exposed to. You know that the sun can cause damage to DNA and we can have radiation, we can have all kinds of different chemicals that cause effects and disrupt the DNA as well as some things we consume in our diets. Lots of things are mutagenic and cause damage to the DNA. So it is very important that we are able to fix those things. First of all though, sometimes DNA polymerase makes mistakes. Thank goodness. They have three prime, five prime exonuclease activities. What on earth does that mean? What that means is that the DNA polymerase I think it is a little van driving down the DNA. And it is driving down the template strand or going along the template strand and the guys who are throwing out the nucleotides that are complimentary to the template strand kind of mess up and there is a guy on the tailgate checking. So we're driving down on three prime, five prime strands everything is good and the guy on the tailgate yells "Oh! Stop." We would back up the van...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture DNA Repair & Genetic Mutations by Georgina Cornwall, PhD is from the course DNA Repair & Genetic Mutations. It contains the following chapters:

    • Proofread and Repair Mechanisms
    • Mutations in General
    • Point Mutations
    • Frameshift Mutations
    • Chromosomal Mutations

    Author of lecture DNA Repair & Genetic Mutations

     Georgina Cornwall, PhD

    Georgina Cornwall, PhD

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