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Physiology of Learning and Memory

Learning and the development of memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment are processes that cannot be strictly separated from psychology and sociology. Thus, this article deals with the physiology of learning and memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment. Topics include understanding Understanding Decision-making Capacity and Legal Competence the relationship Relationship A connection, association, or involvement between 2 or more parties. Clinician–Patient Relationship between experience and storage of acquired knowledge, how the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification deals with “useless” knowledge, and how a baby starts to understand its surroundings.

Last updated: 19 May, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

What Is Learning?

The word learning is originally related to ‘teaching somebody’ and ‘trick’. Furthermore, learning is also etymologically related to ‘tracing something’. The conclusion is that learning is a process to acquire new knowledge. Learning is the precondition for the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification to store experiences and to use those experiences in our actions to gain benefits and prevent damage.

Formation of synapses

Learning processes during the first 6 months of a baby’s life hold great significance for the development of the nervous system Nervous system The nervous system is a small and complex system that consists of an intricate network of neural cells (or neurons) and even more glial cells (for support and insulation). It is divided according to its anatomical components as well as its functional characteristics. The brain and spinal cord are referred to as the central nervous system, and the branches of nerves from these structures are referred to as the peripheral nervous system. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification. Environmental stimuli and experiences also play a role in this process since they lead to the formation of new synapses and the improvement of already existing synaptic connections. The ability of the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification to form and improve these connections are referred to as neuroplasticity, whether they are based on physiological or neuroanatomical conditions.

Limbic lobe

Image: “1511 The Limbic Lobe” by OpenStax College. License: CC BY 3.0

How do infants learn?

Most brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification cells are already formed during pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care. However, an infant’s nerve cells still cannot communicate at the time of birth, since they are not yet connected. These connections are developed during the 1st 3 years of life. This process takes place by developing  dendrites Dendrites Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other neurons. Nervous System: Histology, which enable cells to absorb information. Moreover, synaptic connections, which are responsible for relaying information, are formed. The extent of these connections is far greater than what is required, which makes it easy to adjust later if needed.

Learning capacity of babies

Babies react strongly to stimuli, which is also an important indication that a learning process is being carried out. Besides, these stimuli are necessary for the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification to develop, meaning that an environment with few stimuli hinders the development of babies.

During this development stage, the ability to differentiate faces and vocal sounds are better developed than in adults, which enables the baby to distinguish between familiar people and strangers. After imprinting Imprinting The variable phenotypic expression of a gene depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA methylation pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. Epigenetic Regulation their personal surroundings, the baby loses a certain amount of flexibility concerning their mental abilities. However, learning processes become more specific. This development takes place during the first 6 months of life.

How Does the Brain Work?

The brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification uses  neurons Neurons The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system. Nervous System: Histology to communicate and, to a large extent, manage itself. However, the development of neurons Neurons The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system. Nervous System: Histology and the resulting brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification capacities depend on environmental and sensory Sensory Neurons which conduct nerve impulses to the central nervous system. Nervous System: Histology stimuli. The brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification works in connection with the  spinal cord Spinal cord The spinal cord is the major conduction pathway connecting the brain to the body; it is part of the CNS. In cross section, the spinal cord is divided into an H-shaped area of gray matter (consisting of synapsing neuronal cell bodies) and a surrounding area of white matter (consisting of ascending and descending tracts of myelinated axons). Spinal Cord: Anatomy to send and receive information via the neurons Neurons The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system. Nervous System: Histology. The brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification processes all perceptions, which are also connected. For this process, the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification uses already stored experiences. However, most perceptions are suppressed. The brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification differentiates perceptions that must be processed during the learning process according to:

  • Relevance
  • Value of new knowledge
  • Significance
  • Meaningfulness
Parts of a neuron

Parts of a neuron

Image: “The major parts of the neuron” by OpenStax College. License: CC BY 4.0

Importance of Emotions during the Learning Process

Cognition and emotions play a major role in the process of learning. Sensations are used as somatic markers, which influence processingstorage, and  memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment. Learning also includes the strengthening of the most used neuronal pathways, so they can be used longer and above all faster.

Learning as Formation and Deformation inside the Brain

The process of learning starts with processing external influences. Learning leads to changes in the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification that can be classified into 4 categories: expandingtuningreconstructing, and pruning.

Expanding means to improve the number and strength of neuronal connections by developing a network of already existing information. Tuning describes the process of creating new connections. During the process of reconstructingrelearning takes place. In this time-consuming and exhausting process, preexisting learning achievements ( motor Motor Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells. Nervous System: Histology patterns and routine processes) are replaced by new ones that are better suited for the respective task. Pruning describes the regression Regression Corneal Abrasions, Erosion, and Ulcers of neuronal potential, which is used little or not at all. During this process, connections can be changed in such a way that they cannot be activated anymore.

Learning is differentiated into:

  • Intentional learning
  • Individual learning
  • Collective learning
  • Physical learning
  • Social learning

Significance of social interaction and physical activity

Humans need social interactions, and this also applies to the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and ClassificationMirror neurons Neurons The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system. Nervous System: Histology inside the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification are responsible for the development of the required cognitive orientation Orientation Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person. Psychiatric Assessment pattern. Physical activity is important for brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification performance as well, and this particularly applies in the 1st years of life.

Localization of Learning Processes and Memory

Motor Motor Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells. Nervous System: Histology learning is located in the neurons Neurons The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system. Nervous System: Histology of the  cerebellum Cerebellum The cerebellum, Latin for “little brain,” is located in the posterior cranial fossa, dorsal to the pons and midbrain, and its principal role is in the coordination of movements. The cerebellum consists of 3 lobes on either side of its 2 hemispheres and is connected in the middle by the vermis. Cerebellum: Anatomy and  basal ganglia Basal Ganglia Basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclear agglomerations involved in movement, and are located deep to the cerebral hemispheres. Basal ganglia include the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen), globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus. Basal Ganglia: Anatomy. The declarative memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment is located in the medial temporal lobe Temporal lobe Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the occipital lobe. Cerebral Cortex: Anatomy. A lesion of the hippocampus leads to  anterograde amnesia Anterograde amnesia Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow craniocerebral trauma; seizures; anoxia; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the hippocampus; fornix (brain); mammillary bodies; and anterior thalamic nuclei). Wernicke Encephalopathy and Korsakoff Syndromemeaning that new information cannot be stored anymore.

Memory Systems

The procedural memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment is in the  striatum Striatum Striped gray matter and white matter consisting of the neostriatum and paleostriatum (globus pallidus). It is located in front of and lateral to the thalamus in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the globus pallidus and putamen). The white matter is the internal capsule. Basal Ganglia: Anatomy and uses the pathway of the  neocortex Neocortex The largest portion of the cerebral cortex in which the neurons are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers. Cerebral Cortex: AnatomyAssociative learning takes place inside the  amygdala Amygdala Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle of the temporal lobe. The amygdala is part of the limbic system. Limbic System: Anatomy for emotional processes and in the  cerebellum Cerebellum The cerebellum, Latin for “little brain,” is located in the posterior cranial fossa, dorsal to the pons and midbrain, and its principal role is in the coordination of movements. The cerebellum consists of 3 lobes on either side of its 2 hemispheres and is connected in the middle by the vermis. Cerebellum: Anatomy for motor Motor Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells. Nervous System: Histology processes. Non-associative learning occurs in the form of habituation and sensitization (both via reflex circuits).

Hebbian theory

The Hebbian theory explains how the connection between certain neurons Neurons The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system. Nervous System: Histology can be strengthened.

If an axon of neuron A is located close enough to neuron B so that neuron B can be stimulated by neuron Repeatedly or continuously, the efficiency of neuron A for the stimulation by neuron B is increased by growth processes or changes in metabolism in both or 1 of the 2 neurons Neurons The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system. Nervous System: Histology. This means that experience-related changes in the nervous systems depend on certain conditions.

Development of Memory and the Papez Circuit

The Papez circuit Papez circuit Limbic System: Anatomy is important for the development of memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment. The circuit is located in the center of the limbic system Limbic system The limbic system is a neuronal network that mediates emotion and motivation, while also playing a role in learning and memory. The extended neural network is vital to numerous basic psychological functions and plays an invaluable role in processing and responding to environmental stimuli. Limbic System: Anatomy. The  limbic system Limbic system The limbic system is a neuronal network that mediates emotion and motivation, while also playing a role in learning and memory. The extended neural network is vital to numerous basic psychological functions and plays an invaluable role in processing and responding to environmental stimuli. Limbic System: Anatomy is located above the brain stem Brain Stem The brain stem is a stalk-like structure that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord and consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. It also plays a critical role in the control of cardiovascular and respiratory function, consciousness, and the sleep-wake cycle. Brain Stem: Anatomy and exists in all mammals. It has a vital role in social behavior, solicitude, love, fear, and learning by imitation.

Limbic system

Limbic system Limbic system The limbic system is a neuronal network that mediates emotion and motivation, while also playing a role in learning and memory. The extended neural network is vital to numerous basic psychological functions and plays an invaluable role in processing and responding to environmental stimuli. Limbic System: Anatomy

Image: “ Brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification limbicsystem” by Pixelsquid. License: Public Domain, edited by Lecturio.

Papez circuit Papez circuit Limbic System: Anatomy

The  Papez circuit Papez circuit Limbic System: Anatomy is a chain of neurons Neurons The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system. Nervous System: Histology, named after its discoverer, James Papez. Research Research Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. Conflict of Interest on the tasks of the Papez circuit Papez circuit Limbic System: Anatomy for memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment performance is still ongoing. However, the assumption that the circuit controls anger and rage is already outdated since it has been discovered that the circuit is even more complex than Papez thought.

These days, it is assumed that the  Papez circuit Papez circuit Limbic System: Anatomy serves the storage of memories by transferring information from the primary memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment (short-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment) to the secondary memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment (long-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment) or the tertiary memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment (an independent part of the long-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment).

The  Papez circuit Papez circuit Limbic System: Anatomy proceeds as follows: hippocampus → fornix Fornix Vagina, Vulva, and Pelvic Floor: Anatomy → mammillary body inside the  hypothalamus Hypothalamus The hypothalamus is a collection of various nuclei within the diencephalon in the center of the brain. The hypothalamus plays a vital role in endocrine regulation as the primary regulator of the pituitary gland, and it is the major point of integration between the central nervous and endocrine systems. Hypothalamus (corpora mammillaria) → cingulate cortex → hippocampus

Papez circuit

Papez Circuit Papez circuit Limbic System: Anatomy

Image: “ Papez Circuit Papez circuit Limbic System: Anatomy” by مستخدم:NotMySecondOpinion. License: Public Domain

The Different Types of Memory

The specialist term for mind and memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment is called the mnestic function. Some things are easier to remember than other things. For example, important things are easier to remember than events that hold no meaning, and positive experiences are easier to remember than neutral experiences. Moreover, the process of remembering is easier in a prevailing positive mood, which also means that remembering things is more difficult in a state of fatigue Fatigue The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli. Fibromyalgia or grief.

Process of encoding information

Note: Encoding is the process of transferring sensory Sensory Neurons which conduct nerve impulses to the central nervous system. Nervous System: Histology information into a construct which is then stored in our memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment system.

Working memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment stores information for immediate use as part of mental activity (i.e. learning or problem solving).

Schematic of the encoding decoding model of communication

Schematic of the encoding/decoding model of communication Communication The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups. Decision-making Capacity and Legal Competence, in which the sender or ‘encoder’ uses verbal and non-verbal symbols to deliver a message. The decoder or receiver then interprets the message.

Image by Lecturio.
  • It is thought to include phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, central executive, and episodic buffer.
  • It allows for manipulation and organization of information vs. short-term  memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment.

The primary effect is a cognitive bias Bias Epidemiological studies are designed to evaluate a hypothesized relationship between an exposure and an outcome; however, the existence and/or magnitude of these relationships may be erroneously affected by the design and execution of the study itself or by conscious or unconscious errors perpetrated by the investigators or the subjects. These systematic errors are called biases. Types of Biases that results in a subject recalling the 1st items on a list.

  • Theory: These items have had the most time to be encoded and transferred into long-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment.

The recency effect is a cognitive bias Bias Epidemiological studies are designed to evaluate a hypothesized relationship between an exposure and an outcome; however, the existence and/or magnitude of these relationships may be erroneously affected by the design and execution of the study itself or by conscious or unconscious errors perpetrated by the investigators or the subjects. These systematic errors are called biases. Types of Biases that results in a subject recalling the last items on a list.

  • Theory: These items are in the phonological loop and are highly accessible.
Recency effect

Image by Lecturio.

Humans have a declarative memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment (explicit memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment) and a procedural memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment (implicit memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment). The declarative memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment stores information that can be reproduced because we are conscious of the experience/information. The procedural memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment, on the other hand Hand The hand constitutes the distal part of the upper limb and provides the fine, precise movements needed in activities of daily living. It consists of 5 metacarpal bones and 14 phalanges, as well as numerous muscles innervated by the median and ulnar nerves. Hand: Anatomy, contains experiences for which one has no direct memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment of the learning process. Still, this type of memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment influences our behavior. The classic example is the process of learning a new language.

Sensory Sensory Neurons which conduct nerve impulses to the central nervous system. Nervous System: Histology memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment (ultra-short-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment)

The ultra-short-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment receives stimuli from  sensory Sensory Neurons which conduct nerve impulses to the central nervous system. Nervous System: Histology organs in the form of neuronal excitation. This process has a duration of less than 1 second, and the perception Perception The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted. Psychiatric Assessment can take place via the eyes or ears. The ultra-short-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment via the eye is also referred to as iconic memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment, and via the ears, echoic memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment (and it perishes just as fast). Only stimuli that reach the short-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment remain because the ultra-short-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment has no storage capabilities.

Short-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment (primary memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment)

Memories in the primary memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment (short-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment) are available as long as we occupy ourselves with them. If that process is interrupted, the memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment is lost too. Memories that begin in the primary memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment can be available permanently, but only if they are transferred to long-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment. It is assumed that short-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment is a transit for experiences into long-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment.

The hippocampus, located in the cerebral cortex Cerebral cortex The cerebral cortex is the largest and most developed part of the human brain and CNS. Occupying the upper part of the cranial cavity, the cerebral cortex has 4 lobes and is divided into 2 hemispheres that are joined centrally by the corpus callosum. Cerebral Cortex: Anatomy, is involved in the process of transmitting information from the primary memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment to the long-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment. The hippocampus is thought to be involved in this process because when lesions appear in the hippocampus, only the short-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment remains intact. Another term for primary memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment is ‘labile memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment since it is very unstable. One distraction is enough to forget the perceived or heard information. Calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes has a major role in these processes.

Long-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment

For storing memories in long-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment, repetition is particularly important. This concept is easily understandable when one considers the high amount of repetition required to learn new movement patterns, e.g., when learning a new sport.

Semantic networks and spreading networks

  • Information is stored in our long-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment as an organized network.
  • Individual ideas or hubs are called nodes (i.e. cities on a map).
  • Nodes are connected by links or associations (i.e. roads between cities).
  • The strength of the association is related to how frequently and deeply the connection is made.
  • Processing material in different ways leads to the establishment of multiple connections.
  • Nodes are only activated once they reach a response threshold Threshold Minimum voltage necessary to generate an action potential (an all-or-none response) Skeletal Muscle Contraction.
  • The response threshold Threshold Minimum voltage necessary to generate an action potential (an all-or-none response) Skeletal Muscle Contraction is reached by the summation of input signals from multiple nodes.
  • Activation of a node leads to the stimulation of neighboring connecting nodes.
  • The activation of a few nodes can lead to a pattern of activation within the network that spreads inward (known as spreading activation).
  • It explains contextual cues, priming, and associations.
Example of a semantic network

Example of a semantic network, as a way to store information by representing the semantic relations between concepts

Image by Lecturio.

Process that aid in encoding memories

  • Mnemonic is any technique for improving retention and retrieval from memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment.
  • Rehearsal: use of the phonological loop
  • Chunking is a strategy that organizes information into discrete groups of data.
  • Hierarchies organize words or information into categories
  • Depth of processing: deeper level, semantic content leads to better recall
  • Acronym (i.e. AIDS AIDS Chronic HIV infection and depletion of CD4 cells eventually results in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which can be diagnosed by the presence of certain opportunistic diseases called AIDS-defining conditions. These conditions include a wide spectrum of bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections as well as several malignancies and generalized conditions. HIV Infection and AIDS, CD CD Cesarean delivery (CD) is the operative delivery of ≥ 1 infants through a surgical incision in the maternal abdomen and uterus. Cesarean deliveries may be indicated for a number of either maternal or fetal reasons, most commonly including fetal intolerance to labor, arrest of labor, a history of prior uterine surgery, fetal malpresentation, and placental abnormalities. Cesarean Delivery-ROM, FAQ)

Dual coding hypothesis Hypothesis A hypothesis is a preliminary answer to a research question (i.e., a “guess” about what the results will be). There are 2 types of hypotheses: the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. Statistical Tests and Data Representation indicates that it is easier to remember words with associated images.

  • More connections made to the memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment
  • Deeper content

The method of loci involves imagining moving through a familiar place and having stops or loci.

  • Items to be recalled are mentally associated with these physical locations or loci
  • Provides a deeper representation
  • Also known as the ‘Journey method’
Schematic example of the method of loci

Schematic example of the method of loci, also called the journey method or the memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment journey, which is a strategy of memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment enhancement based on visual imagery that enhances the recall of information.

Image by Lecturio.

Self-reference effect involves making new information personally relevant, e.g., “I live on Beatrice Ave…”.

The Process of Learning inside the Brain

The hippocampus also plays an important role in the process of learning. There exists a connection between nerve cells and the neuronal mechanism, which is assumed to be the physiologic substrate Substrate A substance upon which the enzyme acts. Basics of Enzymes of learning. This physiologic substrate Substrate A substance upon which the enzyme acts. Basics of Enzymes consists of continuous electrophysiologicmorphologic, and molecular changes of nerve cells. For information to be available long-term, long-term potentiation (LTP) is necessary. LTP facilitates the stimulation of  afferent Afferent Neurons which conduct nerve impulses to the central nervous system. Nervous System: Histology axons Axons Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body. Nervous System: Histology over a period of weeks as well as a stronger calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes influx.

Everything stored in the long-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment is available during one’s entire life. The processes of the long-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment take place under the influence of the neurotransmitter glutamate Glutamate Derivatives of glutamic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure. Synthesis of Nonessential Amino Acids ( glutamic acid Glutamic acid A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the l-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Urea Cycle).

Pathology of Memory Performance

The highly complex system of learning and memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment is susceptible to malfunctions. If anomalies occur, the differential diagnosis must be made with the greatest care, because even changes in the mineral balance of the body can lead to disorders that give the impression of a disease (e.g., calcium Calcium A basic element found in nearly all tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes. Electrolytes deficiency). Furthermore, cases of  dementia Dementia Major neurocognitive disorders (NCD), also known as dementia, are a group of diseases characterized by decline in a person’s memory and executive function. These disorders are progressive and persistent diseases that are the leading cause of disability among elderly people worldwide. Major Neurocognitive Disorders are increasing, which is partly due to an increase in life expectancy Life expectancy Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live. Population Pyramids.

Amnesia

Amnesia is a type of memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment disorder in which a patient loses access to stored information. The term ‘amnesia’ originates from the Greek a (without) and mnémē ( memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment). Amnesia is not an independent disease but is the symptom of a disease or the consequence of an influence on the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification. This influence can be internal or external.

In the case of amnesia, patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship cannot store experiences or learned knowledge, and this can affect Affect The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves. Psychiatric Assessment all types of information or only certain parts. For example, patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship can lose access to memories from certain stages of their lives. In most cases, the patient can remember events that happened long ago rather than events that occurred just lately. There are different forms of amnesia. However, they cannot be strictly separated from each other. The following forms are of importance:

  • Retrograde amnesia Retrograde amnesia Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with craniocerebral trauma; cerebrovascular accidents; seizures; dementia; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. Wernicke Encephalopathy and Korsakoff Syndrome
  • Global amnesia Global amnesia Dissociative Amnesia
  • Transient global amnesia Global amnesia Dissociative Amnesia
  • Anterograde amnesia Anterograde amnesia Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow craniocerebral trauma; seizures; anoxia; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the hippocampus; fornix (brain); mammillary bodies; and anterior thalamic nuclei). Wernicke Encephalopathy and Korsakoff Syndrome
  • Psychogenic amnesia

Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease As the most common cause of dementia, Alzheimer disease affects not only many individuals but also their families. Alzheimer disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes brain atrophy and presents with a decline in memory, cognition, and social skills. Alzheimer Disease

Alzheimer disease Alzheimer disease As the most common cause of dementia, Alzheimer disease affects not only many individuals but also their families. Alzheimer disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes brain atrophy and presents with a decline in memory, cognition, and social skills. Alzheimer Disease is characterized by a regression Regression Corneal Abrasions, Erosion, and Ulcers of nerve cells, which can result in the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification shrinking up to 20%. The consequence is an impaired relay of information. Furthermore, Alzheimer’s may make processing information nearly impossible. At the same time, plaques of protein fragments form. Brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification regions responsible for processing information and memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment performance are particularly affected by Alzheimer’s disease.

Alzheimer brain comparison

Left: healthy brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification
Right: brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification with Alzheimer

Image: “Alzheimer’s disease brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification comparison” by Garrondo. License: Public Domain

References

  1. Carlson, N. R., & Birkett, M. A. (2017). Physiology of behavior.
  2. Guyton, A. C. (1991). Textbook of medical physiology. Philadelphia: Saunders.
  3. Martinez, J. L., &Kesner, R. P. (1998). Neurobiology of learning and memory. San Diego: Academic Press.
  4. Squire, L. R., & Schacter, D. L. (2002). Neuropsychology of memory. New York: Guilford Press.

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