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Urinary System

by Geoffrey Meyer, PhD
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    In this lecture, I'm going to describe the histological structure of the kidney, ureter, bladder, and the male and female urethra. These organs make up the urinary system. There're a number of learning outcomes that I'd like you to achieve at the end of this lecture. I'd like you to know the structure of the kidney, and be able to define a lobule in the kidney, and then understand the structure of the nephron and the renal corpuscle. And then, be able to describe the structure and function of what the glomerulus is all about, and how it filtrates the blood and forms an ultrafiltrate. We will then look at the different tubule systems that make up the nephron, and it's important that you understand how to identify each of those tubules, because it's important to relate the structure of these tubules to the function that they carry out when you learn physiology of the kidney in physiology lectures. It's also important to understand the role of the macula densa and the juxtaglomerular apparatus. The blood supply to the kidney is also very important, particularly, to supply to the nephron and the vasa recta. It's also important when you look at the kidney to be able to differentiate cortical and juxtaglomerular nephrons. And finally, you should be able to describe the structure of the bladder, the ureter, and also the urethra in the male and the female. The kidney is very important. It removes all the toxins of the body. These four dot points summarize the function of the kidney. It removes toxins and also retrieves back from the filtrate, substances and water that the body needs. The kidney has a role in adjusting blood pressure, an acid-base balance of all the body fluids. It produces the hormone erythropoietin and...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Urinary System by Geoffrey Meyer, PhD is from the course Urinary Histology. It contains the following chapters:

    • Urinary System
    • General structure of the kidney
    • Nephron
    • Renal corpuscle
    • Filtration apparatus
    • Tubes of the nephron
    • Juxtaglomerular apparatus
    • Urothelium and urethra

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Production of vitamin E
    2. Retrieval of water and amino acids
    3. Acid-base balance of body fluids
    4. Regulation of blood pressure
    5. Retrieval of salts and proteins
    1. Renal artery (in the hilum), interlobar artery, arcuate artery, interlobular artery (in the cortex)
    2. Renal artery (in the cortex), interlobar artery, arcuate artery, interlobular artery (in the medulla)
    3. Renal artery (in the hilum), interlobular artery, arcuate artery, interlobar artery (in the cortex)
    4. Renal artery (in the medulla), interlobar artery, arcuate artery, interlobular artery (in the cortex)
    5. Renal artery (in the hilum), interlobular artery, arcuate artery, interlobar artery (in the medulla)
    1. An interlobular artery is located on either side of the medullary pyramid
    2. Consists of straight tubules and collecting ducts running in parallel
    3. Forms the boundaries of the lobes of the kidney
    4. The base of the pyramid lies against the boundary of the medulla and cortex
    5. The apex of the pyramid opens into the renal papilla then minor calyx
    1. Is a component of a renal column
    2. Consists of straight tubules and collecting tubules in the cortex
    3. Defines the centre of each kidney lobule
    4. May contain some collecting ducts in the cortex
    5. Have a interlobular artery at its periphery
    1. proximal convoluted tubule, descending thick limb/segment of the proximal tubule, descending thin limb, loop of Henle, ascending thin limb, ascending thick limb/segment of the distal tubule, distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubule, collecting duct
    2. proximal convoluted tubule, descending thick limb/segment of the proximal tubule, descending thin limb, loop of Henle, ascending thin limb, ascending thick limb/segment of the distal tubule, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct, collecting tubule
    3. distal convoluted tubule, descending thick limb/segment of the distal tubule, descending thin limb, loop of Henle, ascending thin limb, ascending thick limb/segment of the proximal tubule, proximal convoluted tubule, collecting tubule, collecting duct
    4. proximal convoluted tubule, descending thin limb/segment of the proximal tubule, descending thick limb, loop of Henle, ascending thick limb, ascending thin limb/segment of the distal tubule, distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubule, collecting duct
    5. proximal convoluted tubule, descending thick limb/segment of the proximal tubule, descending thin limb, ascending thin limb, loop of Henle, ascending thick limb/segment of the distal tubule, distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubule, collecting duct
    1. form the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule
    2. are squamous epithelial cells
    3. lie adjacent to the distal convoluted tubule
    4. lie adjacent to the afferent arteriole
    5. lie adjacent to the efferent arteriole
    1. fenestration, basal laminae of both the endothelial cell and the podocyte, filtration slit of the podocyte, filtration diaphragm of the podocyte, Bowman's space
    2. fenestrations, basal lamina of the endothelial cell, filtration slit of the podocyte, basal lamina of the podocyte, filtration diaphragm of the podocyte, Bowman's space
    3. basal lamina of the endothelial cell, fenestration, filtration slit of the podocyte, basal lamina of the podocyte, filtration diaphragm of the podocyte, Bowman's space
    4. filtration slit of the podocyte, fenestrations, basal laminae of both the podocyte and endothelial cell, fenestration, filtration diaphragm of the podocyte, Bowman's space
    5. fenestrations, basal laminae of both the podocyte and endothelial cell, filtration diaphragm of the podocyte, filtration slit of the podocytes, Bowman's space
    1. Macula densa cells respond to low concentration of sodium chloride in the lumen of distal convoluted tubules and stimulate juxtaglomerular cells in the afferent arteriole to secrete renin
    2. Macula densa cells respond to low concentration of sodium chloride in the lumen of proximal convoluted tubules and stimulate juxtaglomerular cells in the afferent arteriole to secrete renin
    3. Macula densa cells respond to high concentration of sodium chloride in the lumen of distal convoluted tubules and stimulate juxtaglomerular cells in the afferent arteriole to secrete renin
    4. Macula densa cells respond to low concentration of sodium chloride in the blood of the afferent arteriole and stimulate juxtaglomerular cells in the afferent arteriole to secrete renin
    5. Macula densa cells respond to low concentration of sodium chloride in the lumen of distal convoluted tubules and stimulate mesangial cells in the glomerulus to secrete renin

    Author of lecture Urinary System

     Geoffrey Meyer, PhD

    Geoffrey Meyer, PhD


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