Lymphoid Organs

by Geoffrey Meyer, PhD

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    The lymphatic system contains lymphoid organs and tissues. And the job of these organs is to mount responses against any invading pathogens. So I’m going to talk about the lymphoid organs throughout this lecture. And hopefully at the end of this lecture, I’d like you to understand first of all a lymphatic nodule, what its structure is, and what it resembles. And we’re also going to look at the appendix and gut-associated lymphatic tissues. You should also recall how lymph is produced and how lymph flows through lymph nodes and the structure to the lymph node. Lymph nodes are designed for detecting antigens. So we’ll go through the structure of various components of the lymph node. We will then move on to look at the thymus. And at the end of this lecture, you should have a thorough understanding of the structure and function of the thymus. And lastly, we’re going to look not just to the lymph node, but we’re going to look at the spleen as well, a very similar organ. But you’ll appreciate that lymph node filters lymph and the spleen filters blood. You should know those differences, and also the structural differences to allow those two different roles. The function of the whole lymphatic system, as I mentioned at the start of this lecture, was to monitor all parts of the body, particularly mucosal surfaces, mucosal surfaces that are exposed to the exterior of the body, for instance, the respiratory system and the gut. And to monitor those surfaces and connective tissue spaces, and detect invading antigens. And once they're detected, they’d respond to them by then alerting the lymphoid organs and cells within each of those organs but its specialized to act against certain antigens. When we look at the cells that are involved in...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Lymphoid Organs by Geoffrey Meyer, PhD is from the course Lymphoid Histology. It contains the following chapters:

    • Lymphoid Organs
    • Cells of the lymphatic system
    • Lymphatic tissues and organs
    • Lymph nodes
    • Lymph node in detail
    • Thymus
    • Spleen
    • Summary of the lymphatic system

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. T cells differentiate from an activated lymphoblast in the lymphatic nodule
    2. Reticular cells and reticular fibres produced by these cells form elaborate networks in lymphatic tissues including a lymph node and the spleen
    3. In the thymus, epithelioreticular cells form the structural framework but they do not produce reticular fibres and are not reticular cells
    4. Cluster of differentiation (CD) molecules are unique cell surface molecules and can be visualized by immunohistochemical staining methods using monoclonal antibodies
    5. B cells differentiate and give rise to cells that secrete antibodies
    1. Follicular dendritic cells are derived from activated lymphoblasts in the lymphatic nodule
    2. The germinal centre in a lymph nodule is a histological sign that lymphatic tissues is responding to an antigen
    3. B cell predominate in the cortex and T cells predominate in the paracortex of a lymph node
    4. The coronal zone is a population of lymphocytes that surround a germinal centre
    5. A medullary ray is a population of B lymphocytes and plasma cells migrating into the medulla of the lymph node
    1. Lymphocytes can enter a lymph node via efferent lymphatic channels and postcapillary high endothelial venules (HEV’s)
    2. Lymph nodes filter lymph
    3. Follicular dendritic cells play an important role in supporting B lymphocytes during their differentiation
    4. Macrophages are present in the lymph nodules and phagocytose B lymphocytes deemed to be incompetent
    5. Lymph flowing through lymph nodes can expose any antigen in the lymph to immune cells and initiate an immune response
    1. Type II epithelioreticular cells compartmentalize developing T cells in the thymus medulla
    2. Type I epithelioreticular cells are located adjacent to the thymus capsule and separate T cells undergoing education
    3. Type I epithelioreticular cells are located between the cortical zone and the connective tissue trabeculae/septa
    4. Type IV epithelioreticular cells create a barrier at the junction of the thymus cortex and medulla
    5. Type VI epithelioreticular cells form thymic/Hassall’s corpuscles
    1. The lymphocytes in the periarterial lymphatic sheath (PALS) are mostly B lymphocytes
    2. The spleen filters blood and can initiate an immune responses to antigen carried in the blood
    3. The white pulp of the spleen consists of lymphatic tissue
    4. Red pulp is characterized by the presence of splenic sinusoids and splenic cords
    5. The periarterial lymphatic sheath (PALS) surrounds the central artery in the spleen

    Author of lecture Lymphoid Organs

     Geoffrey Meyer, PhD

    Geoffrey Meyer, PhD

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