The Complexity of RNA Structure

by Kevin Ahern, PhD

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    In this presentation we begin to get an idea of the complexity of RNA and also the complexity in the ways that RNAs are made. I would be covering the topics here of eukaryotic gene expression and RNAs and RNA polymerase, as we shall see. Now in eukaryotes the scenario for making RNA is very complicated. The proteins that cover the DNA making up the protein-DNA-complex called chromatin have a major role in basically hindering gene expression. So in order for genes to be able to be expressing eukaryotes, they have to not only be able to the help the polymerase find the promoter, they also have to be able open up the region so that promoter can be found and that's what I wanna talk a little bit about here. So the complexity is enormous and moreover the sequences are larger and the genes are very widely spaced apart. So chromatin to define it is a complex of DNA and histone proteins that make up what we call the chromosomes. Now the histone proteins are positively charged small proteins that the DNA wraps with it, we shall see. In order to help the DNA polymerase to find the right sequence, proteins called transcription factors help facilitate this process. And they work in a variety of ways and one of the ways I am going to discuss here is through the use of enhancer sequences that they bind to, to help set up the transcriptional machinery. Now chromatin the first thing I need to discuss; because, chromatin is really a complex that has to be dealt with in order for RNA to be made. As I said, it's a complex of DNA protein and in some cases actually RNA comprising the eukaryotic chromosomes. For RNA polymerase to perform this transcription,...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture The Complexity of RNA Structure by Kevin Ahern, PhD is from the course RNA and the Genetic Code. It contains the following chapters:

    • Eukaryotic Gene Expression
    • Epigenetics
    • Transcription
    • RNA Polymerase

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. ...contains five different histone proteins and DNA.
    2. ...refers to the DNA and RNA mix found in eukaryotic cells.
    3. ...contains DNA wrapped around a tetrameric core of histone proteins.
    4. ...is found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
    1. Histone H1 is found in the center of the octet core.
    2. It contains two copies each of histones H2a, H2b, H3, and H4.
    3. DNA is wrapped around the histones.
    4. The negatively charged DNA is attracted to the positively charged histones.
    1. ...causes them to be less positively charged.
    2. ...occurs on glycine side chains.
    3. ...causes transcription to be inactivated.
    4. ...creates heterochromatin.
    1. ...RNA polymerase binds independently of everything else.
    2. ...activator proteins bind to enhancer sequences.
    3. ...enhancer sequences can function thousands of bases away from a promoter.
    4. ...bending of the DNA brings activator proteins into close proximity of a promoter.
    1. ...are bound by a protein called CTCF.
    2. ...protein enhancers from being inhibited in the transcription process.
    3. ...stimulate transcription.
    4. ...are activated by methylation of cytosine.
    1. ...have a hand structure like DNA polymerases.
    2. ...require a primer.
    3. ...operate like DNA polymerases, copying both strands simultaneously.
    4. ...primarily copy the coding strand.
    1. ...primarily makes rRNAs.
    2. ...primarily makes tRNAs.
    3. ...primarily makes mRNAs.
    4. ...primarily makes miRNAs.

    Author of lecture The Complexity of RNA Structure

     Kevin Ahern, PhD

    Kevin Ahern, PhD

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