Major Airways Obstruction, Bronchiectasis, Cystic Fibrosis, Haemoptysis

by Jeremy Brown, PhD

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    Previously I've discussed asthma and COPD in two previous lectures on airways diseases. This third lecture is going to cover other airways diseases, which are less common but are still significant clinical problems. We're going to talk about major airways obstruction, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, which is a genetic disease that is a cause of bronchiectasis and haemoptysis. Diseases that we're going to discuss today are those that cause large airways obstruction, and this is physical obstruction of the central airways, which I mean, the larynx, the trachea or the major bronchi. Now clearly, this is an important area for conducting air to the lungs, and if you block the trachea, then you're gonna get less air ventilating the lungs, and that is the major significant problem with these and that's that they are potentially life-threatening disorders. In addition, they are easily misdiagnosed as much more common diseases such as asthma or COPD. When you have common diseases like those two causes of airways diseases, asthma and COPD, it's quite easy to think that anybody presenting with airways obstruction, cough could have asthma or COPD and forget about things like larger airways obstruction which will be present in a very small minority of patients presenting with those symptoms. So you do need a high index of suspicion to make sure that you don't miss these diseases. So what are the causes and how do people present who have large airways obstruction? Well, this depends to a certain degree on the speed of presentation. So somebody suddenly presents with airways obstruction, very acute breathlessness and stridor inspiratory wheeze then you need to think about aspiration of a foreign body or a large object lodging in the tracheal and major bronchus that's been dislodged or has been aspirated by the patient. In addition,...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Major Airways Obstruction, Bronchiectasis, Cystic Fibrosis, Haemoptysis by Jeremy Brown, PhD is from the course Respiratory Medicine (Pulmonology): Advanced. It contains the following chapters:

    • Different causes of large airways obstruction
    • Investigation and treatment
    • Bronchiectasis - overview and causes
    • Bronchiectasis - presentation and clinical signs
    • Bronchiectasis - diagnosis and treatment
    • Cystic fibrosis and ABPA
    • Haemoptysis
    • Summary of airways disease

    Quiz for lecture

    Test your knowledge with our quiz for lecture Major Airways Obstruction, Bronchiectasis, Cystic Fibrosis, Haemoptysis.

    1. Fall in home peak flow readings after an upper respiratory tract infection
    2. Only a very limited improvement in low peak flow recordings with treatment
    3. Positional wheeze and stridor
    4. Squared off’ flow volume loop appearance
    1. Herpes simplex
    2. Tuberculosis
    3. Whooping cough
    4. Pneumonia
    1. ‘Squared off’ flow volume loop appearance
    2. Obstructive spirometry
    3. Haemoptysis
    4. Dilated bronchi visible on CT scan
    1. Lung cancer
    2. Pancreatic insufficiency
    3. Sinus and upper airways disease
    4. Small bowel obstruction
    1. Lying the patient onto the unaffected lung
    2. Bronchial arteriogram and embolisation
    3. Measuring haemoglobin and clotting time
    4. Oxygen and intravenous fluid replacement

    Author of lecture Major Airways Obstruction, Bronchiectasis, Cystic Fibrosis, Haemoptysis

     Jeremy Brown, PhD

    Jeremy Brown, PhD

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