Epidemiological Factors & History

by Jeremy Brown, PhD

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    So in this lecture, I'm going to discuss the clinical assessment of patients with lung disease. We can divide this into three main factors. One is assessing the epidemiological factors which are present for the patient: age, sex, ethnicity, country of origin. The second is taking a good history. And the third is examination. The third component (the examination) I will discuss in a subsequent lecture. Demography and respiratory disease is important. It's very important, in fact, because which disease a patient is likely to have will be dictated by their age and, to a lesser extent, by their sex, their ethnic origin, their country of birth. So for example, somebody who's 20 years old with breathlessness will not have COPD. They've not had a long enough history of smoking to develop COPD in almost every circumstance. Somebody who's born in the UK and has lived there their whole life and lives at, say, in a country village rather than in one of the larger towns like London, is very unlikely to develop tuberculosis, because their exposure to tuberculosis is minimal. So we can divide the lung diseases into three categories: the ones that really affect younger people, the ones that affect middle age, and the ones which are commoner in the elderly. Now, the ones that affect the middle age and the elderly overlap largely. But the younger patient really is not going to get the nasty diseases such as lung cancer and COPD. So young adults might have asthma, a pneumothorax, pulmonary emboli, pneumonia, sarcoidosis. And some causes of bronchiectasis are common in young people... are… affect young people, such as cystic fibrosis, for example. In the middle age, you start to worry about lung cancer, obstructive sleep apnea, but pneumonia is still present. Asthma is still quite...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Epidemiological Factors & History by Jeremy Brown, PhD is from the course Introduction to the Respiratory System. It contains the following chapters:

    • Epidemiological factors
    • Important symptoms - dyspnoea
    • Important symptoms - wheeze, chest pain and cough
    • Important symptoms - sputum production
    • Past medical and social history

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Country of birth and tuberculosis.
    2. Male sex and asthma.
    3. Female sex and obstructive sleep apnoea.
    4. Younger adults and pneumonia.
    1. Pneumothorax
    2. COPD
    3. Pulmonary fibrosis
    4. Anaemia
    1. Haemoptysis and asthma
    2. Haemoptysis and lung cancer
    3. Cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux
    4. Purulent phlegm and bronchiectasis
    1. Night sweats and COPD
    2. Emphysema and weight loss
    3. Night sweats and tuberculosis
    4. Ankle oedema and severe COPD
    1. A history of alcohol abuse in a patient presenting with a 5 year history of progressive dyspnoea.
    2. A history of hay fever and eczema in a 25 year old presenting with chronic cough.
    3. A previous history of tuberculosis in a 39 year old presenting with recurrent haemoptysis.
    4. A history of rheumatoid arthritis in a 72 year old presenting with chronic progressive dyspnoea.

    Author of lecture Epidemiological Factors & History

     Jeremy Brown, PhD

    Jeremy Brown, PhD

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