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Medical Psychology and Sociology: Learning and Memory

Why do you decide in favor of certain actions and behavior but not of others? To get to the bottom of this question, psychology has developed a number of learning models. Classical and operant conditioning Operant conditioning Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced. Psychotherapy, learning by self-control, and observational learning are important basics that psychotherapy Psychotherapy Psychotherapy is interpersonal treatment based on the understanding of psychological principles and mechanisms of mental disease. The treatment approach is often individualized, depending on the psychiatric condition(s) or circumstance. Psychotherapy is based on. The following article contains, in addition to all facts about learning, knowledge about memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment and language that is relevant for your exams.

Last updated: 5 May, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Classical Conditioning: Stimulus Control

Table: Classical conditioning
This type of conditioning relies on:
Neutral stimulus (NS) Unconditioned stimulus (US) Unconditioned response (UR) Conditioned stimulus (CS) Conditioned response (CR)
Initially, does not elicit an intrinsic response Will elicit an unconditioned response Not learned, more biological Originally neutral stimulus that is paired with a US Learned response to the CS

When referring to this term, do physiologist P. Pawlow and the dog-bell- saliva Saliva The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the salivary glands and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains mucins, water, organic salts, and ptyalin. Salivary Glands: Anatomy-experiment directly cross your mind? The founder of the principle of classical conditioning accidentally came across the reaction-stimulus-chain, the so-called respondent model. He combined the action of feeding dogs with the sound of a bell and by and by he determined that the dogs already produced saliva Saliva The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the salivary glands and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains mucins, water, organic salts, and ptyalin. Salivary Glands: Anatomy by hearing the chime although no food was put in front of them.

The originally unconditioned stimulus (food) that led to an unconditioned reaction (salivation) was combined with a neutral impulse. By and by, this neutral impulse triggered the unconditioned reaction: the neutral impulse became the conditioned stimulus.

This conditioned reaction can also be deleted ( extinction Extinction The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without reinforcement to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure. Psychotherapy) by leaving out the conditioned impulse. If the impulse is set again spontaneously, the deleted reaction can appear again, however in a milder form (spontaneous recovery).

If similar impulses have the same reaction, we talk about stimulus-generalization. The term stimulus-discrimination, however, is used when similar impulses can be distinguished anyway.

The process of classical conditioning includes:

  • Discrimination: When the CS is differentiated from other stimuli.
  • Generalization: Refers to when a stimulus other than the original CS elicits a CR.
  • Acquisition: Refers to the process of learning the CR.
  • Extinction Extinction The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without reinforcement to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure. Psychotherapy: Occurs when the CS and US are no longer paired.
  • Spontaneous recovery: Is when an extinct CR occurs again when the CS is reintroduced.
Classical conditioning

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Operant Conditioning: Trial and Error

The US-American psychologist B.F. Skinner is inevitably associated with the term operant conditioning Operant conditioning Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced. Psychotherapy (Skinner-box see below). Operant conditioning Operant conditioning Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced. Psychotherapy describes the acquisition of stimulus-reaction-patterns:

How do we adjust our originally spontaneous behavior through reward and punishment?

The following terms are important with operant conditioning Operant conditioning Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced. Psychotherapy:

  • Positive reinforcement Positive reinforcement PsychotherapyThe probability Probability Probability is a mathematical tool used to study randomness and provide predictions about the likelihood of something happening. There are several basic rules of probability that can be used to help determine the probability of multiple events happening together, separately, or sequentially. Basics of Probability of certain behavior to occur increases through positive reinforcement Positive reinforcement Psychotherapy.
  • Negative reinforcement Negative reinforcement PsychotherapyThe discontinuation of negative impulses also leads to an increase in incidents.
  • Reinforcement: Positive or negative behavior consequences

Warning:

  • Reinforcement = increase of behavior, regardless of whether positive or negative reinforcement Negative reinforcement Psychotherapy
  • positive and negative are not judgmental
  • Positive: adding consequences
  • Negative: removing consequences

Skinner box: Equipment for animal testing with a fixed lever. If this is pushed, the rat will be rewarded with a food pill for its behavior. The behavior of the rat (pushing down the lever) is reinforced and so the action is executed more often. If the animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic receive a painful stimulus after pushing the lever, they will stop this behavior after a little while.

There are 4 important intermittent reinforcement schedules:

Table: Important intermittent reinforcement schedules
Fixed-ratio schedule Variable Variable Variables represent information about something that can change. The design of the measurement scales, or of the methods for obtaining information, will determine the data gathered and the characteristics of that data. As a result, a variable can be qualitative or quantitative, and may be further classified into subgroups. Types of Variables-ratio schedule Fixed-interval schedule Variable Variable Variables represent information about something that can change. The design of the measurement scales, or of the methods for obtaining information, will determine the data gathered and the characteristics of that data. As a result, a variable can be qualitative or quantitative, and may be further classified into subgroups. Types of Variables-interval schedule
Reinforce after a set number of instances of the behavior Reinforce an unpredictable number of instances of the behavior (i.e. gambling) Reinforce a set period that is Reinforce an inconsistent period

Differentiation of positive and negative reinforcement Negative reinforcement Psychotherapy vs. punishment

Table: The behavior consequence will be…
…added …removed
Positive reinforcement Positive reinforcement Psychotherapy Positive strengthening (behavior increases) Punishment(behavior decreases)
Negative reinforcement Negative reinforcement Psychotherapy Punishment (behavior decreases) Negative strengthening (behavior increases)
Reinforcement

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Table: Escape Escape With constant immune mechanisms holding unstable tumor cells in equilibrium, tumor-cell variants may emerge. These cancer cells may express fewer antigens on their surfaces or lose their MHC class I expression.Variants may also protect themselves from T-cell attack via expression of IC molecules on their surfaces, like normal cells.Creation of an immunosuppressive state in the microenvironment is another way to grow without immunologic interference. Cancer Immunotherapy and Avoidance Learning
Escape Escape With constant immune mechanisms holding unstable tumor cells in equilibrium, tumor-cell variants may emerge. These cancer cells may express fewer antigens on their surfaces or lose their MHC class I expression.Variants may also protect themselves from T-cell attack via expression of IC molecules on their surfaces, like normal cells.Creation of an immunosuppressive state in the microenvironment is another way to grow without immunologic interference. Cancer Immunotherapy Avoidance
Learn how to avoid an aversive stimulus by engaging in a particular behavior Perform a behavior to ensure the aversive stimuli is not encountered

More important terms and examples of operant conditioning Operant conditioning Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced. Psychotherapy

Table: More important terms and examples of operant conditioning Operant conditioning Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced. Psychotherapy
Term Definition Example
Primary reinforcement The satisfaction of primary needs Food, sleep Sleep A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility. Physiology of Sleep, rest
Secondary reinforcement Linking to primary reinforcement (social, material, etc ETC The electron transport chain (ETC) sends electrons through a series of proteins, which generate an electrochemical proton gradient that produces energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Electron Transport Chain (ETC).) Praise, admiration, money
Emitted behavior Spontaneously occurring behavior that can be reinforced. Dog lifts its paw, gets rewarded, and repeats the behavior
Prompting Cue through initiating behavior externally Acquisition of language
Fading Gradual fading out of the prompts throughout the conditioning process Teacher gives tips to get the right answer and reduces the number of tips in the process.
Shaping Stepwise acquisition of complex behavior by rewarding consequences Toddler learns to tie shoes.
Chaining Learning complex chains of behavior, usually, the last element is reinforced 1st Brushing teeth Teeth Normally, an adult has 32 teeth: 16 maxillary and 16 mandibular. These teeth are divided into 4 quadrants with 8 teeth each. Each quadrant consists of 2 incisors (dentes incisivi), 1 canine (dens caninus), 2 premolars (dentes premolares), and 3 molars (dentes molares). Teeth are composed of enamel, dentin, and dental cement. Teeth: Anatomy: toothpaste on the brush, clean various areas, flush, use dental floss, etc ETC The electron transport chain (ETC) sends electrons through a series of proteins, which generate an electrochemical proton gradient that produces energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Electron Transport Chain (ETC).
Premack principle Linking of a less favorable activity with a popular one “First you have to eat the salad, then you’ll get the dessert!”

The reinforcement plans

Reinforcement plans are consistent relations between behavior and consequence = contingency.

The high contingency is given, when almost every behavior results in a consequence, whereas we speak of low contingency when consequences follow only occasionally. Continuous reinforcement means that every single desired behavior is strengthened. Intermittent reinforcement means that just a certain number of all desired behavior is strengthened. The distinction is drawn between ratio plans and interval plans:

Table: Reinforcement plans
Fixed ratio plans Consequence after fixed-rate, e.g., every 3rd time
Variable Variable Variables represent information about something that can change. The design of the measurement scales, or of the methods for obtaining information, will determine the data gathered and the characteristics of that data. As a result, a variable can be qualitative or quantitative, and may be further classified into subgroups. Types of Variables ratio plans Consequence after variable Variable Variables represent information about something that can change. The design of the measurement scales, or of the methods for obtaining information, will determine the data gathered and the characteristics of that data. As a result, a variable can be qualitative or quantitative, and may be further classified into subgroups. Types of Variables rate, e.g., after the 2nd, then the 5th, then the 10th time
Fixed interval plans Consequence after a fixed time interval, e.g., every 5 minutes
Variable Variable Variables represent information about something that can change. The design of the measurement scales, or of the methods for obtaining information, will determine the data gathered and the characteristics of that data. As a result, a variable can be qualitative or quantitative, and may be further classified into subgroups. Types of Variables interval plans Consequence after a variable Variable Variables represent information about something that can change. The design of the measurement scales, or of the methods for obtaining information, will determine the data gathered and the characteristics of that data. As a result, a variable can be qualitative or quantitative, and may be further classified into subgroups. Types of Variables time interval, e.g., after 5, then after 10, and then after 15 minutes

Important: While continuous reinforcement leads to fast learning, skills are more resistant to erasing if reinforcement occurs intermittently.

Learning by Understanding: Cognitive Learning

Learning by understanding Understanding Decision-making Capacity and Legal Competence means that we come to a solution by understanding Understanding Decision-making Capacity and Legal Competence the circumstances. Hence, the person gets to a solution through pure reflection, not through an outward visible and observable experience. The ‘light bulb moment’ falls in this category of learning by understanding Understanding Decision-making Capacity and Legal Competence: a sudden flash of inspiration Inspiration Ventilation: Mechanics of Breathing leads to understanding Understanding Decision-making Capacity and Legal Competence and solution-oriented behavior respectively. This approach can then be extrapolated to other situations (e.g., math problem).

Model-based Learning: Observational Learning

Note: Observational learning is also known as social learning or vicarious learning.

Behavior is learned with potentially positive or negative consequences using a model: Other people are observed and their behavior is imitated and learned in this manner. Consequently, there’s neither reinforcement nor consequences for the observer.

Many pro- and antisocial behaviors become conceivable through observational learning.

Examples:

  • Fear of spiders or mice that are conveyed through media and social environment (parents, siblings)
  • Xenophobia
  • Cooperativeness

Biological processes that affect Affect The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves. Psychiatric Assessment observational learning

Mirror neurons Neurons The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system. Nervous System: Histology are found in several brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification regions including:

  • Premotor cortex
  • Primary somatosensory cortex Somatosensory cortex Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus. Cerebral Cortex: Anatomy
  • Inferior parietal Parietal One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the frontal bone and occipital bone, which together form the sides of the cranium. Skull: Anatomy cortex

These neurons Neurons The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system. Nervous System: Histology fire when a task is performed and/or when that same task is observed. They are thought to help us understand the action of others, help us learn through imitation, and are potentially responsible for vicarious emotions such as empathy Empathy An individual’s objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. Psychotherapy.

Learning by Self-control

Behaviors are learned by initial model-based learning and operant conditioning Operant conditioning Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced. Psychotherapy. Based on this, we create our expectation-patterns for ourselves. The intrinsic factors of self-control, self-criticism, and self-confirmation now replace outside reinforcement and punishment.

Example: Child is taught that leisure activities can only be enjoyed after achieving something. As adults, such people only take a break if their self-imposed work plan for the day is met MET Preoperative Care, otherwise they do not.

Habituation, De-habituation, and Sensitization

Table: Habituation, de-habituation, and sensitization
Habituation Adaptation to a recurrent impulse. The intensity of reaction decreases with repetition (though no habituation to pain Pain An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by nerve endings of nociceptive neurons. Pain: Types and Pathways). Contact lenses, tactile impulses of clothing
De-habituation Weaning Weaning Techniques for effecting the transition of the respiratory-failure patient from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous ventilation, while meeting the criteria that tidal volume be above a given threshold (greater than 5 ml/kg), respiratory frequency be below a given count (less than 30 breaths/min), and oxygen partial pressure be above a given threshold (pao2 greater than 50mm hg). Weaning studies focus on finding methods to monitor and predict the outcome of mechanical ventilator weaning as well as finding ventilatory support techniques which will facilitate successful weaning. Present methods include intermittent mandatory ventilation, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, and mandatory minute volume ventilation. Invasive Mechanical Ventilation from habituation’ – recurrence of the reaction after habituation through an interspersed, different impulse. If the permanent siren sound of an ambulance suddenly changes, then we notice the already faded out sound again.
Sensitization Opposite of habituation – increase in reaction intensity, which increases with repetition.

Theories of Attitude and Behavior Change

The elaboration likelihood model is a dual process theory describing changes in attitude and behavior.

Table: Key elements of persuasiveness
Message characteristics Source characteristics Target characteristics
Logic and number of key points, length, and grammatical complexity Level of expertise, knowledge, and trustworthiness Of the person receiving the message like self-esteem, intelligence, mood

Elaboration likelihood model

The model proposes 2 major routes for persuasion:

  • Central route — people are persuaded by the content of the argument
  • Peripheral route focus Focus Area of enhancement measuring < 5 mm in diameter Imaging of the Breast on superficial or secondary characteristics

People will choose the central route only when they are both motivated and not distracted. Processing via the central route will have longer-lasting persuasion vs. peripheral route.

Social cognitive Theory

The social-cognitive perspective incorporates elements of cognition, learning, and social influence. Social cognitive theory is a theory of behavior change that emphasizes the interaction of people and their environment. Social factors, observational learning, and environmental factors can influence attitude change.

Reciprocal determination is an interaction between a person’s behavior, personal factors, and environment (situational factors). Three ways that individuals and environments interact:

  • Individuals choose their environment which in turn shapes them (i.e. neighborhood, campus)
  • Personality shapes how individuals interpret and respond to their environment
  • Individual’s personality influences the situation to which they then react to

Clinical Reference: Application of Learning Models in Therapies

Step 1: Development of fear

Behavior therapy is especially used with an anxiety Anxiety Feelings or emotions of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with anxiety disorders. Generalized Anxiety Disorder disorder ( phobia Phobia A phobia can be defined as an irrational fear that results in avoidance of the feared subject, activity, or situation. Social Anxiety Disorder). Classical conditioning processes play a major role in the development of fear, whereas sustainability is achieved by operant conditioning Operant conditioning Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced. Psychotherapy. The linking of stimulus and reaction (such as fear of black cars, winding up in an accident) can be sustained for years by avoiding the anxiety Anxiety Feelings or emotions of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with anxiety disorders. Generalized Anxiety Disorder-inducing stimulus.

Step 2: Analysis of behavior

A therapist would create an analysis of behavior with the SORCC-Model, e.g., the fear of black cars.

S: Stimulus – sight of black cars; O: Organism – negative experience with black cars in childhood; R: Reaction – strong anxiety Anxiety Feelings or emotions of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with anxiety disorders. Generalized Anxiety Disorder, avoidance, and stimulus control; C: Contingency – power Power The probability that a test will correctly reject a false null hypothesis. Statistical Tests and Data Representation of the connection between R and C; C: Consequence -easing of fear through avoidance ( negative reinforcement Negative reinforcement Psychotherapy). If the therapist makes a clear diagnosis with regard to the circumstances of the fear, he will try to initiate a behavior modification. Erasing of fear can be achieved if the affected person confronts the object of fear and recognizes that it doesn’t pose any danger. To this end, confrontation therapies are applied.

Step 3: Confrontation procedure

Systematic desensitization Systematic desensitization A behavior therapy technique in which deep muscle relaxation is used to inhibit the effects of graded anxiety-evoking stimuli. Psychotherapy

The systematic desensitization Systematic desensitization A behavior therapy technique in which deep muscle relaxation is used to inhibit the effects of graded anxiety-evoking stimuli. Psychotherapy describes a procedure in 3 steps:

  • Relaxation training: learning to consciously relax in situations of fear, e.g., with progressive muscle relaxation technique (according to Jacobson)
  • Fear hierarchy: rank situations depending on the threat level
  • Confrontation in situ or in vivo: In the relaxed condition, the patient is presented with confrontation situations at various levels of the fear hierarchy until the patient can stay relaxed while being confronted with the object of fear at the highest level.

Flooding Flooding Psychotherapy

Stimulus saturation is no stepwise process but presents a sudden, intense confrontation with the object of fear/situation of fear. Flooding Flooding Psychotherapy shall prove to the afflicted person that there is no real danger to expect from the stimulus.

Cognition

Cognition is perceived (lat. cognoscere = experience, recognize) as the complex, comprising perception Perception The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted. Psychiatric Assessment, consciousness, thinking, recognition, and memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment.

Attention Attention Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating. Psychiatric Assessment and perception Perception The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted. Psychiatric Assessment

Attention Attention Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating. Psychiatric Assessment: Heightened vigilance and selective focus Focus Area of enhancement measuring < 5 mm in diameter Imaging of the Breast of perception Perception The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted. Psychiatric Assessment, thinking, and action = condition of intense consciousness.

Perception Perception The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted. Psychiatric Assessment: We gain information about the outer and the inner world through perception Perception The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted. Psychiatric Assessment. Exteroception is the term for the perception Perception The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted. Psychiatric Assessment of the environment through the senses and interoception stands for the inner perception Perception The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted. Psychiatric Assessment of physiological processes.

Perception Perception The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted. Psychiatric Assessment can be selective, strengthened, subliminal, or impaired. Perception Perception The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted. Psychiatric Assessment disorders include:

  • Agnosia: sensory Sensory Neurons which conduct nerve impulses to the central nervous system. Nervous System: Histology organs are intact; the patient, however, is unable to recognize the perception Perception The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted. Psychiatric Assessment (e.g., ‘apple’ is described as a round red thing)
  • Prosopagnosia: faces cannot be recognized

Memory

Memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment can save information (encoding) and later to reproduce (decoding) or recognize it. We distinguish sensory Sensory Neurons which conduct nerve impulses to the central nervous system. Nervous System: Histology memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment, short-term, and long-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment. Keeping information is called retention.

  • Sensory Sensory Neurons which conduct nerve impulses to the central nervous system. Nervous System: Histology memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment (ultra-short-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment): visual impulses of the environment are saved in the iconographic memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment for 1 second and auditory information in the echoic memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment for 2 seconds.
  • Short-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment: ‘interstatio’ a part of the information is taken out of the sensory Sensory Neurons which conduct nerve impulses to the central nervous system. Nervous System: Histology memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment and if necessary transferred to the long-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment: 7 +/- 2 elements can be kept up to 20 seconds.
  • Long-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment: retention for minutes to years.
Multi-store model

Image: “Multistore model” by Zorkun. License: CC BY 3.0

Subdivision of the long-term memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment

Note: The episodic memory Episodic memory Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge. Dissociative Amnesia is responsible for the knowledge about our phases of life; the semantic memory Semantic memory Memory of facts, concepts, objects, words, and definitions. Dissociative Amnesia is our memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment for facts.

Amnesia and memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment disorders

Table: Most important forms of amnesia
Anterograde amnesia Anterograde amnesia Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow craniocerebral trauma; seizures; anoxia; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the hippocampus; fornix (brain); mammillary bodies; and anterior thalamic nuclei). Wernicke Encephalopathy and Korsakoff Syndrome Memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment gaps in the period after the harmful incident (e.g. Polytrauma Polytrauma Multitrauma occurs when 2 or more traumatic injuries occur in at least 2 areas of the body. A systematic management approach is necessary for individuals who have undergone trauma to maximize outcomes and reduce the risk of undiscovered injuries. Multitrauma)
Retrograde amnesia Retrograde amnesia Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with craniocerebral trauma; cerebrovascular accidents; seizures; dementia; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. Wernicke Encephalopathy and Korsakoff Syndrome Memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment gaps in the period before the harmful incident
Dissociative amnesia Dissociative amnesia Dissociative amnesia is a dissociative disorder characterized by temporary memory gaps in response to stressful events. Dissociative amnesia can be subclassified as generalized versus localized or continuous versus systematized. Dissociative Amnesia Sudden inability to remember (mostly upsetting) incidents or information

Most important memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment disorders

  • Korsakow-Syndrome: Persistent amnesic disorder caused by alcoholism Alcoholism A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. Wernicke Encephalopathy and Korsakoff Syndrome, marked with extreme confusion, neurologic abnormalities, and  confabulation Confabulation Memory fabrication to make up for memory lapses Wernicke Encephalopathy and Korsakoff Syndrome ( memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment gaps are re-recorded with imaginary stories).
  • Dementia Dementia Major neurocognitive disorders (NCD), also known as dementia, are a group of diseases characterized by decline in a person’s memory and executive function. These disorders are progressive and persistent diseases that are the leading cause of disability among elderly people worldwide. Major Neurocognitive Disorders: Loss of brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification functions including memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment. Reasons for dementia Dementia Major neurocognitive disorders (NCD), also known as dementia, are a group of diseases characterized by decline in a person’s memory and executive function. These disorders are progressive and persistent diseases that are the leading cause of disability among elderly people worldwide. Major Neurocognitive Disorders can be alcohol, drug abuse, or brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification lesions like strokes. The degenerative disease of Alzheimer‘s makes up the bulk of dementia Dementia Major neurocognitive disorders (NCD), also known as dementia, are a group of diseases characterized by decline in a person’s memory and executive function. These disorders are progressive and persistent diseases that are the leading cause of disability among elderly people worldwide. Major Neurocognitive Disorders.
  • Perseveration Perseveration Neurological Examination: Persistence on certain memory Memory Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory. Psychiatric Assessment contents, repetition of thoughts, and language contents (reason: fatigue Fatigue The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli. Fibromyalgia, drugs, and degeneration).

Speech and Language

We use language for interpersonal communication Communication The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups. Decision-making Capacity and Legal Competence of thoughts, desires, and feelings, and hereby use many symbols. Broca area and Wernicke area are responsible for language generation and speech comprehension. Central speech disorders are defined as aphasia Aphasia A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia. Ischemic Stroke. We talk about global aphasia Aphasia A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia. Ischemic Stroke if both, speech comprehension, and language production are impaired.

Table: Broca area and Wernicke area
Function Localization Aphasia Aphasia A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia. Ischemic Stroke
Broca area Language production Frontal Frontal The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the nasal bone and the cheek bone on each side of the face. Skull: Anatomy convolutions of the dominant hemisphere (on the left side for right-handers) Motor Motor Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells. Nervous System: Histology, expressive aphasia Expressive aphasia An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive language (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the frontal lobe (broca area and adjacent cortical and white matter regions). Geriatric Changes (speech comprehension is intact)
Wernicke area Speech comprehension Traditionally, the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus of the dominant hemisphere, but may also extend into the adjacent parietal lobe Parietal lobe Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the occipital lobe, and superior to the temporal lobes. Cerebral Cortex: Anatomy Sensory Sensory Neurons which conduct nerve impulses to the central nervous system. Nervous System: Histology, recipient aphasia Aphasia A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia. Ischemic Stroke (speech comprehension is impaired)
Broca's and wernicke's areas

Image: “Figure 1” by Phil Schatz. License: CC BY 4.0

Theories of language development

Language acquisition is the process by which children learn to understand and speak their native language. Theories used to explain language development include:

  • Nativist theory
  • Empiricist theory
  • Behaviorist theory

Nativist theory by Noam Chomsky

  • This suggests all children have an innate language activation device (LAD).
  • LAD is an area of the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification that has a set of universal syntactic rules for all languages
  • The idea was later renamed Universal grammar (UG).
  • LAD provides children with the ability to construct novel sentences using learned vocabulary.
  • Linguistic input alone is insufficient to explain how they learn a language.
  • Certain rules must be innate in the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification (i.e. nouns, verbs, and adjectives).

Empiricist

  • General brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification processes are sufficient for language acquisition, LAD is not needed.
  • Child needs to be actively engaged in the environment.
  • Parents or caregivers will interact using child-directed speech (CDS).

Behaviorist theory by B.F. Skinner

  • Suggests language acquisition through operant conditioning Operant conditioning Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced. Psychotherapy.
  • Uses positive reinforcement Positive reinforcement Psychotherapy when imitating stimuli and correct responses.

Positive reinforcement Positive reinforcement Psychotherapy accomplishes:

  • Conditions infant to make the sound associations with the stimulus.
  • Encourages imitative behavior

Influence of language on cognition

Language development has 3 stages:

References

  1. No authorship indicated. (2003). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition: Editor. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition29(3), C2-C2. doi:10.1037/0278-7393.29.3.c2
  2. Shimazu, K. (2006). NT-3 facilitates hippocampal plasticity and learning and memory by regulating neurogenesis. Learning & Memory13(3), 307-315. doi:10.1101/lm.76006
  3. Smythies, J. R. (1966). The neurological foundations of psychiatry: An outline of the mechanisms of emotion, memory, learning and the organization of behavior, with particular regard to the limbic system. Oxford: Blackwell.
  4. Twining, K., Staveley-Taylor, H., Latham, J., Newman, K., Films for the Humanities & Sciences (Firm), Films Media Group, &Uniview Worldwide. (2005). Memory. New York, NY: Films Media Group.

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