Genomics: Comparative Genome Analysis

by Georgina Cornwall, PhD

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    Welcome back to the second lecture on genomics. In the last lecture, you learned about DNA sequencing and how we might sequence a whole genome. But the study of genomics is really about figuring out what the DNA sequence means. We will be exploring this question of what does it all mean throughout this lecture establishing what sorts of DNA are in genomes. By the end of this lecture, you should be able to discuss why sometimes a larger genome is not necessarily a more complex genome. In addition, you will be able to characterize the classes of DNA that we find throughout the genome and recognize the impact of transposable elements. This is a big field. And also, you will be able to explain why single nucleotide polymorphisms are so useful in genetic analysis. The question is why are some organisms with less genes often more complex than those who have more genes? This question came up because when we sequenced the human genome in 2000, the results came out and they said "Wow! Amazing. There are only about 30,000 maybe a few more genes in the genome." We really wanted to push it up to 40,000, but turns out that after further analysis, it is more like 20 to 25,000 and that didn't make us feel particularly good because it is not much different than we see in a fruit fly and things like corn and maize have much more genetic diversity than we do, or genetic code than we do. Many more genes in some of these plants than there are in humans, however, we'll like to think of ourselves is being a little bit more complex than a fruit fly. We figured that there would probably be many more genes and so actually the genome sequencing...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Genomics: Comparative Genome Analysis by Georgina Cornwall, PhD is from the course Genomics. It contains the following chapters:

    • Organisms With Less Genes Are Often More Complex
    • Coding and Non-Coding DNA Sequences
    • Transposable Elements
    • Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
    • A Closer Look at the BRCA2 Gene
    • Expressed Sequence Tags
    • Comparing Normal Tissue and Cancerous Tissue

    Author of lecture Genomics: Comparative Genome Analysis

     Georgina Cornwall, PhD

    Georgina Cornwall, PhD

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