Achieve Mastery of Medical Concepts

Study for medical school and boards with Lecturio

Social Behavior and Discrimination

Most people like to spend time and form relationships with other people. There is a need to belong and be included by important individuals. Interpersonal attraction relates to how much we like an individual. There are several factors that determine interpersonal attraction, including proximity, interpersonal rewards, similarity and physical attractiveness.

Last updated: 8 Mar, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Attraction

Proximity

Physical proximity is a simple reason why people spend time with others. People often choose to be friends or partners with those who live close by to them. Proximity enables individuals to get to know each another, and familiarity is linked to liking a person. However, proximity to someone who is disliked initially may lead to increased dislike. Proximity may also change from liking a person to disliking a person. Environmental spoiling occurs when we learn about a person’s bad habits and find that they outweigh good habits and qualities.

Newer research Research Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. Conflict of Interest and understanding Understanding Decision-making Capacity and Legal Competence of proximity indicates that rather than proximity, it is the interaction accessibility that proximity affords that influences attraction.

Interpersonal rewards

The extent to which a relationship Relationship A connection, association, or involvement between 2 or more parties. Clinician–Patient Relationship or interaction is rewarding is another important determinant of attraction.

Similarity

Similarities in attitudes, interests, and values are an important consideration when people choose their casual acquaintances, friends and best friends.

Physical attractiveness

Physical attractiveness is another factor that influences interpersonal attraction. This does not just apply to romantic relationships but also applies to acquaintances and friendships. Attractive children are more likely to be popular. Attractive adults receive more assistance from people, better job references and higher pay. They rate their encounters to be more pleasant compared to less attractive people.

With romantic relationships, physical attractiveness is an even more important consideration. The matching hypothesis Hypothesis A hypothesis is a preliminary answer to a research question (i.e., a “guess” about what the results will be). There are 2 types of hypotheses: the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. Statistical Tests and Data Representation suggests that people choose partners who they perceive to be just as attractive as themselves.

While standards of beauty differ to some extent between cultures Cultures Klebsiella and individuals, the differences aren’t that great when it comes to judging physical attractiveness. Nor are views of beauty specific to any culture.

One theory that has been put forward to explain why physical attractiveness has such an influence on interpersonal attraction is related to neuroscience. When eye contact is made with a physically attractive person, it leads to activation of an area in the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification known as the ventral striatum Striatum Striped gray matter and white matter consisting of the neostriatum and paleostriatum (globus pallidus). It is located in front of and lateral to the thalamus in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the globus pallidus and putamen). The white matter is the internal capsule. Basal Ganglia: Anatomy, which is associated with reward.

Aggression

Aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder is behavior, physical or verbal, that is intended to harm another person. There are significant variations in the prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency and types of aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder across different cultures Cultures Klebsiella. One of the most consistent features of aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder across cultures Cultures Klebsiella is that males are more likely to perpetrate acts of aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder and crime than females. The prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency of male violence against women, around the world, is being increasingly recognized.

The origins of aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder are still debated. There are theories that stipulate that the origins of aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder are strongly linked to biology and evolution. The regions of the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification primarily controlling aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder are the amygdala Amygdala Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle of the temporal lobe. The amygdala is part of the limbic system. Limbic System: Anatomy, hypothalamus Hypothalamus The hypothalamus is a collection of various nuclei within the diencephalon in the center of the brain. The hypothalamus plays a vital role in endocrine regulation as the primary regulator of the pituitary gland, and it is the major point of integration between the central nervous and endocrine systems. Hypothalamus, and the frontal Frontal The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the nasal bone and the cheek bone on each side of the face. Skull: Anatomy lobes Hormones Hormones Hormones are messenger molecules that are synthesized in one part of the body and move through the bloodstream to exert specific regulatory effects on another part of the body. Hormones play critical roles in coordinating cellular activities throughout the body in response to the constant changes in both the internal and external environments. Hormones: Overview and Types, especially testosterone Testosterone A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the leydig cells of the testis. Its production is stimulated by luteinizing hormone from the pituitary gland. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to dihydrotestosterone or estradiol. Androgens and Antiandrogens, which is a dominant hormone in males, also have a role to play in controlling aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

Other theories indicate that social learning and environment play a more important role in aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant DisorderThe frustration-aggression hypothesis Hypothesis A hypothesis is a preliminary answer to a research question (i.e., a “guess” about what the results will be). There are 2 types of hypotheses: the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. Statistical Tests and Data Representation is a model that indicates aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder occurs as a result of frustrated desires or needs.

Frustration-aggression principle

Frustration-aggression principle

Image by Lecturio.

A combination of factors is likely to be responsible, captured in the general aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder model (GMA). Based on the general aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder model, the aggressive output is determined by variables related to the person and situation.

Attachment

John Bowlby developed the attachment Attachment The binding of virus particles to virus receptors on the host cell surface, facilitating virus entry into the cell. Virology theory.  Attachment Attachment The binding of virus particles to virus receptors on the host cell surface, facilitating virus entry into the cell. Virology refers to the enduring bonds of affection that develop between children and their primary caregivers. It involves a desire for closeness to a person. In the presence of the attachment Attachment The binding of virus particles to virus receptors on the host cell surface, facilitating virus entry into the cell. Virology figure, the child feels secure and in their absence, the child feels distressed. Attachment Attachment The binding of virus particles to virus receptors on the host cell surface, facilitating virus entry into the cell. Virology is not a one-sided relationship Relationship A connection, association, or involvement between 2 or more parties. Clinician–Patient Relationship. Rather, it is an interactive relationship Relationship A connection, association, or involvement between 2 or more parties. Clinician–Patient Relationship between the child and caregiver.

Attachment Attachment The binding of virus particles to virus receptors on the host cell surface, facilitating virus entry into the cell. Virology is important for the development of children. Psychoanalysts have found that children who lived in large institutions with little contact to a loving caregiver experienced emotional instability or mental impairment. Children who have minimal attachment Attachment The binding of virus particles to virus receptors on the host cell surface, facilitating virus entry into the cell. Virology may experience such detrimental effects, now called reactive attachment Attachment The binding of virus particles to virus receptors on the host cell surface, facilitating virus entry into the cell. Virology disorder.

John Bowlby compared attachment Attachment The binding of virus particles to virus receptors on the host cell surface, facilitating virus entry into the cell. Virology to imprinting Imprinting The variable phenotypic expression of a gene depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA methylation pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. Epigenetic Regulation, which is a behavior observed in animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic Imprinting Imprinting The variable phenotypic expression of a gene depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA methylation pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. Epigenetic Regulation refers to when a young animal recognizes another animal who they were exposed to early in their lives as one to trust Trust Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing. Conflict of Interest and follow. Konrad Lorenz, who studied imprinting Imprinting The variable phenotypic expression of a gene depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA methylation pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. Epigenetic Regulation, imprinting Imprinting The variable phenotypic expression of a gene depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA methylation pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. Epigenetic Regulation provides an evolutionary advantage. Immature animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic that stay close to their parents are afforded protection and can learn skills for survival and reproduction.

Attachment Attachment The binding of virus particles to virus receptors on the host cell surface, facilitating virus entry into the cell. Virology is a process that is developed over an individual’s lifespan. In infancy, attachment Attachment The binding of virus particles to virus receptors on the host cell surface, facilitating virus entry into the cell. Virology fosters social and emotional development, and during adulthood, it remains important for long-term psychological development. Patterns of early attachment Attachment The binding of virus particles to virus receptors on the host cell surface, facilitating virus entry into the cell. Virology influence attachment Attachment The binding of virus particles to virus receptors on the host cell surface, facilitating virus entry into the cell. Virology in later life. Adult attachment Attachment The binding of virus particles to virus receptors on the host cell surface, facilitating virus entry into the cell. Virology refers to the experience of attachment Attachment The binding of virus particles to virus receptors on the host cell surface, facilitating virus entry into the cell. Virology relationships during adulthood, such as those formed with significant others, family members and friends.

Altruism

Altruism Altruism Belief or practice of selfless concern for others. Defense Mechanisms is selfless concern about the wellbeing of others involves helping other people with no expectation of gain to oneself. In some cases, it might involve a personal cost. Examples of altruism Altruism Belief or practice of selfless concern for others. Defense Mechanisms include being a blood donor, giving money to the poor or it can be as simple as giving someone directions or giving them a smile.

However, for many years philosophers have debated over whether true altruism Altruism Belief or practice of selfless concern for others. Defense Mechanisms exists. Many believe in the concept of ethical hedonism, which is the idea that all behavior is intended to increase one’s pleasure or alleviate one’s suffering. Altruistic actions can result in positive emotions. Negative emotions may be dispelled with a selfless act. Such actions can lead to social rewards such as gratification and thanks from others, or even material rewards such as gifts or awards. Helping people may be a way of avoiding the guilt if one was not to help, or to alleviate empathic distress, where individuals feel negative feelings from empathizing with another person in distress.

Alternatively, there are those who believe that genuine altruism Altruism Belief or practice of selfless concern for others. Defense Mechanisms exists. The French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed that humans possessed natural compassion Compassion A feeling of sympathy or sorrow for another, accompanied by a strong desire to alleviate their suffering. Clinician–Patient Relationship for other humans. There is some experimental data that supports this idea – that people do, in most cases, opt to help someone who is in distress.

Evolutionary psychologists have proposed another perspective on altruism Altruism Belief or practice of selfless concern for others. Defense Mechanisms. They redefine self-interest in terms of reproductive success, and this is expanded to include the reproductive success of related individuals, called inclusive fitness. The evolutionary perspective is that people aim to maximize their inclusive fitness, and so they are more likely to help people who are related to them.

Another significant finding regarding altruism Altruism Belief or practice of selfless concern for others. Defense Mechanisms is the bystander effectBystander intervention is when an individual helps a stranger who is in distress. However, studies have shown that the presence of others can influence whether a person acts or not. In general, if there are more onlookers in a crisis situation, an individual is less likely to take personal responsibility and act.

Social Support

Social support refers to the network of social contacts an individual can rely on in times of stress. People can provide emotional support, information, tangible resources or companionship to help an individual deal with a stressor. As such, social support helps reduce stress or the impact of a stressful event.

Emotional support Offering of empathy Empathy An individual’s objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. Psychotherapy, affection, encouragement
Tangible support Provision of financial assistance, materials, goods, or services (i.e. money, dinner, cleaning)
Informational support Provide advice, guidance, useful information
Companionship support Presence of companions to engage in shared social activities

Social support is used for different types of stressors, from a physical illness such as cancer or stroke to the death of a loved one, discrimination, and many others. In addition to reducing stress, social support is associated with health benefits. For example, students with social support have better immune systems and this may account for a lower incidence Incidence The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from prevalence, which refers to all cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency of sickness during stressful academic periods. Good social support has also been associated with faster recovery in patients Patients Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures. Clinician–Patient Relationship who are suffering from an illness or who have undergone surgery. People with a lack of social support are at increased risk of death from illness and suicide Suicide Suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Patients with chronic medical conditions or psychiatric disorders are at increased risk of suicidal ideation, attempt, and/or completion. The patient assessment of suicide risk is very important as it may help to prevent a serious suicide attempt, which may result in death. Suicide.

A good social support network is more likely to promote happiness, especially if the network is filled with happier people. A social support system provides an avenue to disclose stressful feelings and pent-up thoughts, which may be the reason for its positive effects. Similarly, it is recognized that involvement in support groups for various problems such as alcoholism Alcoholism A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. Wernicke Encephalopathy and Korsakoff Syndrome, drug abuse, and grief, have benefits for an individual’s health.

The quality Quality Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps. Quality Measurement and Improvement of social support is important. Too much support may lead to overprotection from stressors, which can result in poorer coping strategies. Also, in some situations, social networks may encourage negative behaviors such as smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases.

Animal Behavior

Foraging behaviors in animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic

Foraging behavior refers to behavior that involves searching for, capturing and eating food. Animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic have different methods of searching for food, such as active hunting, sitting and waiting, and browsing.

Animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic also employ different ways or tactics of obtaining their food. For example, a cheetah stalks its prey, coming within close range before suddenly overtaking it in a quick high-speed chase. Spotted hyena hunting groups chase their prey and overcome them by superior stamina and by working together.

Mating behavior in animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic

The first stage of the reproductive cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic is mate selection Selection Lymphocyte activation by a specific antigen thus triggering clonal expansion of lymphocytes already capable of mounting an immune response to the antigen. B cells: Types and Functions. This is a process in which an animal of the opposite sex Sex The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism. Gender Dysphoria is chosen and a pairing is formed. Mate selection Selection Lymphocyte activation by a specific antigen thus triggering clonal expansion of lymphocytes already capable of mounting an immune response to the antigen. B cells: Types and Functions usually occurs in sexually mature animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic. However, there are exceptions, such as the pairings that occur among lovebirds who are 2 months old and have juvenile feathers. Likewise, members of the African waxbill species form pairings when the birds are less than 35 days old and are still fed by their parents.

Mate selection Selection Lymphocyte activation by a specific antigen thus triggering clonal expansion of lymphocytes already capable of mounting an immune response to the antigen. B cells: Types and Functions involves choosing the right sex Sex The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism. Gender Dysphoria and species. Pairings of different species ( hybridization Hybridization The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid. Blotting Techniques) usually result in infertile offspring that fail to adapt to either parent’s ecological niche. Consequently, through natural selection Selection Lymphocyte activation by a specific antigen thus triggering clonal expansion of lymphocytes already capable of mounting an immune response to the antigen. B cells: Types and Functions, there are mechanisms that prevent hybridization Hybridization The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid. Blotting Techniques. These reproductive isolating mechanisms include pre-mating mechanisms, such as ecological, temporal, behavioral and mechanical isolation, as well as post-mating mechanisms that prevent successful interspecific crosses.

Sex Sex The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism. Gender Dysphoria selection Selection Lymphocyte activation by a specific antigen thus triggering clonal expansion of lymphocytes already capable of mounting an immune response to the antigen. B cells: Types and Functions is important as well. For most species, sexual identification Identification Defense Mechanisms is based on the identification Identification Defense Mechanisms of features that distinguish a male from a female. However, in some cases, there are only a few features to distinguish between the sexes, which is the case with most pigeon species, with the key difference being behavioral.

Following mate selection Selection Lymphocyte activation by a specific antigen thus triggering clonal expansion of lymphocytes already capable of mounting an immune response to the antigen. B cells: Types and Functions, courtship often occurs. During courtship, females are typically coy, prolonging the courtship on purpose to test the male and forcing him to work harder on his advances. Courtship is followed by copulation and rearing of offspring.

Different mating strategies exist. Three of the most common types include random mating, in which case there are no spatial, genetic or behavioral limitations Limitations Conflict of Interest and there is high genetic variability; dissociative mating, in which animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic often mate those with disparate traits; and assortative mating, which involves non-random mating of animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic with similar genotypes or phenotypes.

Applying game theory to animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic

Game theory uses mathematical models to make predictions about the behavior of animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic with the same interests. An animal requires an overall strategy to achieve success within a game. The strategy includes the goal and a plan to achieve that goal. Animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic employ various tactics to achieve their goal.

When tactics are optimal choices, they are called evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS). An ESS is a strategy that cannot be replaced by a new strategy in the population.

The application of game theory requires a number of steps:

  • Identification Identification Defense Mechanisms of possible strategies based on observing animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic or logical thinking.
  • Identification Identification Defense Mechanisms of outcomes when different tactics are used.
  • Repetition of the game to determine the ESS.
  • Observation of animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic in the field to assess if their behavioral strategies correlate with the predictions obtained from game theory application.

Biological explanations of inclusive fitness and altruism Altruism Belief or practice of selfless concern for others. Defense Mechanisms in animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic

Inclusive fitness is a measure that assesses the number of animal’s genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure present in subsequent generations, as well as the number of genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure present in related individuals.

Altruism Altruism Belief or practice of selfless concern for others. Defense Mechanisms in animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic refers to self-destructive behavior that is carried out to benefit others. The benefit may be measured in units of inclusive fitness, and as such, an altruistic act would be one that improves the inclusive fitness of other animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic at the expense of the individual’s own inclusive fitness. The benefit can also be defined in terms of survival, in which case an altruistic act is one that increases the survival chances of another animal while decreasing one’s own survival chances. Therefore, parental care of an offspring would not be altruistic in regards to inclusive fitness, as this act would increase their inclusive fitness. However, parental care would be altruistic in terms of survival, as the parent decreases their own life expectancy Life expectancy Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live. Population Pyramids while promoting the survival of the offspring.

Altruistic behavior is also evident in animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic that provide care to young animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic who are not their offspring but they are related to. For example, some of the nests of Florida scrub-jays have ‘helpers’ who are siblings of the young and contribute 30% of their food. These altruistic acts may be seen as ‘selfish’ at the gene Gene A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. Basic Terms of Genetics level, as the copies of helper genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure in the relatives’ bodies are benefitted.

Discrimination

Dictionary meaning of discrimination is prejudiced or unjust treatment with different people depending on their age, sex Sex The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism. Gender Dysphoria or race.

Discrimination may be based on:

  • Race
  • Gender Gender Gender Dysphoria
  • Ethnicity
  • Sexual orientation Sexual orientation The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at puberty under the influence of gonadal steroids (testosterone or estradiol), and social effects. Sexual Physiology
  • Age
  • Disability Disability Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for social security and workman’s compensation benefits. ABCDE Assessment
  • Pay/ compensation Compensation Respiratory Acidosis
  • Health status
  • Genetic information

Individual discrimination refers to the actions of an individual member from one social group with the intention to have a differential or harmful effect on an individual from another social group.

Institutional discrimination refers to policies of the dominant institution with the intention to have a differential or harmful effect on the minority group. It includes the actions of individuals who control the dominant institution and implement policies.

The relationship Relationship A connection, association, or involvement between 2 or more parties. Clinician–Patient Relationship between prejudice and discrimination

The word prejudice literally means “prejudgment”. As a concept, prejudice refers to the attitude directed toward people based on their membership in a specific social group. This attitude may be positive or negative.

Just as attitudes have a cognitive, affective and behavioral component to them, so does prejudice. The cognitive component of prejudice consists of stereotyped thinking. The affective component of prejudices relates to the feelings that individuals harbor toward stereotyped groups, such as admiration, hatred, and anger.

Where prejudice is related to discrimination is in its behavioral component. The behavioral aspect of prejudice consists of social discrimination, which involves differential treatment based on an individual’s membership of social group.

How power Power The probability that a test will correctly reject a false null hypothesis. Statistical Tests and Data Representation, prestige and class facilitate discrimination

People in positions of power Power The probability that a test will correctly reject a false null hypothesis. Statistical Tests and Data Representation may seek to maintain their status by employing discrimination against certain groups. Those with an authoritarian trait seek to protect themselves, and to do so, strongly identify with their in-group, while discriminating against and looking down upon out-groups.

Furthermore, those with power Power The probability that a test will correctly reject a false null hypothesis. Statistical Tests and Data Representation, or in a higher-class situation, often have the means to discriminate against those who have less power Power The probability that a test will correctly reject a false null hypothesis. Statistical Tests and Data Representation or are in a lower class.

It is against the laws to discriminate on the basis of many factors.

References

  1. Breed, M. D., & Moore, J. (2015). Animal behavior. Academic Press.
  2. McFarland, D. (2006). A Dictionary of Animal Behaviour. Oxford University Press.
  3. Pincus, F. L. (1996). Discrimination comes in many forms: Individual, institutional, and structural. The American Behavioral Scientist, 40(2), 186.
  4. Westen, D., Burton, L. J., & Kowalski, R. (2006). Psychology: Australian and New Zealand edition. John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

USMLE™ is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB®) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME®). MCAT is a registered trademark of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). NCLEX®, NCLEX-RN®, and NCLEX-PN® are registered trademarks of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc (NCSBN®). None of the trademark holders are endorsed by nor affiliated with Lecturio.

Study on the Go

Lecturio Medical complements your studies with evidence-based learning strategies, video lectures, quiz questions, and more – all combined in one easy-to-use resource.

Learn even more with Lecturio:

Complement your med school studies with Lecturio’s all-in-one study companion, delivered with evidence-based learning strategies.

Details