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Social Behavior and Discrimination

People ordinarily like to spend time and form relationships with other people. There is a need to belong with others and be included by important individuals. Interpersonal attraction relates to how much we like an individual. There are several factors that determine interpersonal attraction, including proximity, interpersonal rewards, similarity, and physical attractiveness.

Last updated: Aug 22, 2022

Editorial responsibility: Stanley Oiseth, Lindsay Jones, Evelin Maza

Attraction

Proximity

Physical proximity is a simple reason why people spend time with others. People often choose to be friends or partners with those who live close to them. Proximity enables individuals to get to know one another, and familiarity is linked to liking a person. However, proximity to someone whom one dislikes may lead to increased dislike. Proximity may also cause one to dislike a person whom they had initially liked. Environmental spoiling occurs when we learn about a person’s bad habits and find that such habits outweigh the person’s good qualities.

Newer research Research Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. Conflict of Interest and understanding of proximity indicate that it is interaction accessibility, rather than proximity, that proximity affords and which influences attraction.

Interpersonal rewards

The extent to which a relationship Relationship A connection, association, or involvement between 2 or more parties. Clinician–Patient Relationship or interaction is rewarding is another important determinant of attraction.

Similarity

Similarities in attitudes, interests, and values are an important consideration when people choose their casual acquaintances, friends, and best friends.

Physical attractiveness

Physical attractiveness is another factor that influences interpersonal attraction. This does not apply only to romantic relationships but also to acquaintances and friendships. Attractive children are more likely to be popular, and attractive adults receive more assistance from people, better job references, and higher pay. People often rate their encounters with attractive people to be more pleasant compared to those they have with less attractive people.

In romantic relationships, physical attractiveness is an even more important consideration. The matching hypothesis Hypothesis A hypothesis is a preliminary answer to a research question (i.e., a “guess” about what the results will be). There are 2 types of hypotheses: the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. Statistical Tests and Data Representation suggests that people choose partners whom they perceive to be just as attractive as themselves.

While standards of beauty differ to some extent between cultures and individuals, the differences are not that significant when it comes to judging physical attractiveness. Nor are views of beauty specific to any culture.

One theory put forward to explain the influence of physical attractiveness on interpersonal attraction is related to neuroscience. When eye contact is made with a physically attractive person, it leads to the activation of an area in the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification known as the ventral striatum Striatum Striped gray matter and white matter consisting of the neostriatum and paleostriatum (globus pallidus). It is located in front of and lateral to the thalamus in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the globus pallidus and putamen). The white matter is the internal capsule. Basal Ganglia: Anatomy, which is associated with reward.

Aggression

Aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder is any behavior, physical or verbal, that is intended to harm another person.

There are significant variations in the prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency and types of aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder between different cultures. One of the most consistent features of aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder across cultures is that men are much more likely to perpetrate acts of aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder and crime than women. The prevalence Prevalence The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time. Measures of Disease Frequency of male violence against women, around the world, is being increasingly recognized.

The origins of aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder are still debated. There are theories that stipulate that aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder is strongly linked to biology and evolution. The regions of the brain Brain The part of central nervous system that is contained within the skull (cranium). Arising from the neural tube, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including prosencephalon (the forebrain); mesencephalon (the midbrain); and rhombencephalon (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of cerebrum; cerebellum; and other structures in the brain stem. Nervous System: Anatomy, Structure, and Classification that primarily control aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder are the amygdala Amygdala Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle of the temporal lobe. The amygdala is part of the limbic system. Limbic System: Anatomy, the hypothalamus Hypothalamus The hypothalamus is a collection of various nuclei within the diencephalon in the center of the brain. The hypothalamus plays a vital role in endocrine regulation as the primary regulator of the pituitary gland, and it is the major point of integration between the central nervous and endocrine systems. Hypothalamus, and the frontal Frontal The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the nasal bone and the cheek bone on each side of the face. Skull: Anatomy lobes. Hormones Hormones Hormones are messenger molecules that are synthesized in one part of the body and move through the bloodstream to exert specific regulatory effects on another part of the body. Hormones play critical roles in coordinating cellular activities throughout the body in response to the constant changes in both the internal and external environments. Hormones: Overview and Types, especially testosterone Testosterone A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the leydig cells of the testis. Its production is stimulated by luteinizing hormone from the pituitary gland. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to dihydrotestosterone or estradiol. Androgens and Antiandrogens—a dominant hormone in men—also have a role to play in controlling aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Other theories suggest that social learning and environment play more important roles in aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder. The frustration-aggression hypothesis Hypothesis A hypothesis is a preliminary answer to a research question (i.e., a “guess” about what the results will be). There are 2 types of hypotheses: the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis. Statistical Tests and Data Representation is a model that states aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder occurs as a result of frustrated desires or needs.

Frustration-aggression principle

Frustration-aggression principle

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A combination of factors, as captured in the general aggression Aggression Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism. Oppositional Defiant Disorder model (GMA), is likely to be responsible. Based on the GMA, aggressive output is determined by variables related to the person and the situation.

Attachment

John Bowlby developed the attachment theory. Attachment refers to the enduring bonds of affection that develop between children and their primary caregivers. It involves a desire for closeness to a person. In the presence of the attachment figure, the child feels secure; in their absence, the child feels distressed. Attachment is not a one-sided relationship Relationship A connection, association, or involvement between 2 or more parties. Clinician–Patient Relationship. Rather, it is an interactive relationship Relationship A connection, association, or involvement between 2 or more parties. Clinician–Patient Relationship between the child and the caregiver.

Attachment is important for the development of children. Psychoanalysts have found that children who lived in large institutions with little contact with a loving caregiver experienced emotional instability or mental impairment. Children who have minimal attachment outside of institutions may also experience such detrimental effects, now called reactive attachment disorder.

Bowlby compared attachment to imprinting Imprinting The variable phenotypic expression of a gene depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA methylation pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. Epigenetic Regulation, a behavior observed in animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic. Imprinting Imprinting The variable phenotypic expression of a gene depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA methylation pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. Epigenetic Regulation refers to when a young animal recognizes another animal to whom they were exposed, early in their lives, as one to trust Trust Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing. Conflict of Interest and follow. Konrad Lorenz, who studied imprinting Imprinting The variable phenotypic expression of a gene depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA methylation pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. Epigenetic Regulation, posited that it provides an evolutionary advantage, as immature animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic that stay close to their parents are afforded protection and can learn skills for survival and reproduction.

Attachment is a process that is developed over an individual’s life span. In infancy, attachment fosters social and emotional development; during adulthood, it remains important for long-term psychological development. Patterns of early attachment influence attachment in later life. Adult attachment refers to the experience of attachment relationships during adulthood, such as those formed with significant others, family members, and friends.

Altruism

Altruism Altruism Belief or practice of selfless concern for others. Defense Mechanisms is selfless concern about the well-being of others. It involves helping other people with no expectation of gain for oneself. In some cases, it might even involve a personal cost. Examples of altruism Altruism Belief or practice of selfless concern for others. Defense Mechanisms include being a blood donor and giving money to the poor. It can also be as simple as giving someone directions or showing them a smile.

For many years, however, philosophers have debated whether true altruism Altruism Belief or practice of selfless concern for others. Defense Mechanisms exists. Many believe in the concept of ethical hedonism, which is the idea that all behavior is intended to increase one’s pleasure or alleviate one’s suffering. Altruistic actions can result in positive emotions. Negative emotions may be dispelled with a selfless act. Such actions can lead to social rewards such as gratification and thanks from others, or even material rewards such as gifts or awards. Helping people may be a way of avoiding the guilt that one would feel if they were to withhold aid, or of alleviating empathic distress, whereby individuals feel negative feelings from empathizing with another person in distress.

Alternatively, there are those who believe that genuine altruism Altruism Belief or practice of selfless concern for others. Defense Mechanisms exists. The French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed that humans possessed natural compassion Compassion A feeling of sympathy or sorrow for another, accompanied by a strong desire to alleviate their suffering. Clinician–Patient Relationship for other humans. There is some experimental data that supports this notion — that people do, in most cases, opt to help someone who is in distress.

Evolutionary psychologists have proposed another perspective on altruism Altruism Belief or practice of selfless concern for others. Defense Mechanisms. They redefine self-interest in terms of reproductive success, and this is expanded to include the reproductive success of related individuals (called inclusive fitness). The evolutionary perspective is that people aim to maximize their inclusive fitness, so they are more likely to help people who are related to them.

Another significant finding regarding altruism Altruism Belief or practice of selfless concern for others. Defense Mechanisms is the bystander effect. Bystander intervention is when an individual helps a stranger who is in distress. However, studies have shown that the presence of others can influence whether or not a person acts on another’s behalf. In general, if there are more onlookers in a crisis situation, an individual is less likely to take personal responsibility and act.

Social Support

Social support refers to the network of social contacts an individual can rely on in times of stress.

People can help individuals deal with stressors by providing emotional support, information, tangible resources, or companionship. Therefore, social support helps reduce stress or the impact of a stressful event.

Stress may be defined as a psychophysiological process that is usually experienced as a negative emotional state causing changes in many chemical and hormonal reactions in the body. The health effects of stress mainly involve the autonomic, cardiovascular, and immune systems.

Stress can be acute or chronic. Acute psychological stress Psychological stress Stress wherein emotional factors predominate. Acute Stress Disorder is associated with elevated blood pressure, headaches, gastrointestinal disturbances, and sleeping problems. It is also associated with leukocytosis Leukocytosis A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid. West Nile Virus, increased natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, and reduced proliferative response to mitogens. Chronic psychological stress Psychological stress Stress wherein emotional factors predominate. Acute Stress Disorder can provoke negative changes in cardiovascular function, including persistently elevated blood pressure and the development of coronary artery Coronary Artery Truncus Arteriosus disease.

Emotional support Offering of empathy Empathy An individual’s objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. Psychotherapy, affection, or encouragement
Tangible support Provision of financial assistance, materials, goods, or services (e.g., money, dinner, cleaning)
Informational support Provision of advice, guidance, or useful information
Companionship support The presence of companions to engage in shared social activities

Social support is useful for providing relief from many different types of stressors—the death of a loved one, a physical illness such as cancer or stroke, or negative social events such as divorce, loss of employment, or discrimination.

In addition to reducing psychological stress Psychological stress Stress wherein emotional factors predominate. Acute Stress Disorder, social support is associated with health benefits. Combining data from 70 studies of 3.4 million people worldwide, researchers have shown the magnitude of the benefit that good social support can reap: Compared with those who had ample social connections, socially isolated or lonely people had a 30% greater death rate during a seven-year study period (Holt-Lunstad, 2017). Former US Surgeon General Vivek H. Murthy noted in 2017 that “loneliness [predicts] a reduction of life span” that is “similar to that caused by smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases 15 cigarettes a day.” Other studies have shown that people with a lack of social support are at increased risk of death from illness and suicide Suicide Suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Patients with chronic medical conditions or psychiatric disorders are at increased risk of suicidal ideation, attempt, and/or completion. The patient assessment of suicide risk is very important as it may help to prevent a serious suicide attempt, which may result in death. Suicide.

The quality Quality Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps. Quality Measurement and Improvement of social support is important. Too much support may lead to overprotection from stressors, which can result in poorer coping strategies. Also, in some situations, social networks may encourage negative behaviors such as smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases.

Animal Behavior

Foraging behaviors in animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic

Foraging behavior involves searching for, capturing, and eating food. 

Animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic have different methods of searching for food, such as active hunting, sitting and waiting, and browsing. A cheetah stalks its prey, coming within close range before suddenly overtaking it in a brief high-speed chase. Hunting groups of spotted hyenas chase their prey and overcome them by superior stamina and teamwork.

Mating behavior in animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic

The first stage of the reproductive cycle Cycle The type of signal that ends the inspiratory phase delivered by the ventilator Invasive Mechanical Ventilation in animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic is mate selection Selection Lymphocyte activation by a specific antigen thus triggering clonal expansion of lymphocytes already capable of mounting an immune response to the antigen. B cells: Types and Functions. This is a process by which an animal of the opposite sex Sex The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism. Gender Dysphoria is chosen and a pairing is formed. Mate selection Selection Lymphocyte activation by a specific antigen thus triggering clonal expansion of lymphocytes already capable of mounting an immune response to the antigen. B cells: Types and Functions usually occurs in sexually mature animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic. There are exceptions, however, such as the pairings that occur among lovebirds who are two months old and have juvenile feathers. Likewise, members of the African waxbill species form pairings when the birds are less than 35 days old and are still fed by their parents.

Mate selection Selection Lymphocyte activation by a specific antigen thus triggering clonal expansion of lymphocytes already capable of mounting an immune response to the antigen. B cells: Types and Functions involves choosing the right sex Sex The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism. Gender Dysphoria and species. Pairings of different species ( hybridization Hybridization The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid. Blotting Techniques) usually result in infertile offspring (if any are produced at all) that fail to adapt to either parent’s ecological niche. Mules are the offspring of male donkeys and female horses (rarely of female donkeys and male horses), and they are 99.9% sterile Sterile Basic Procedures because they have an uneven chromosome Chromosome In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. Basic Terms of Genetics count. From a human’s point of view, mules have some advantages over horses and donkeys. They are hardier, eat less, live longer than horses, and have more stamina. They are also less stubborn and more intelligent than donkeys. Since ancient times, humans have found that mules are very useful, resilient working animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic that can work in the harshest of environments.

Through natural selection Natural Selection Population Genetics, there are mechanisms that prevent hybridization Hybridization The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid. Blotting Techniques. These reproductive isolating mechanisms include pre-mating mechanisms, such as ecological, temporal, behavioral, and mechanical isolation, as well as post-mating mechanisms that prevent successful interspecific crosses.

Sex Sex The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism. Gender Dysphoria selection Selection Lymphocyte activation by a specific antigen thus triggering clonal expansion of lymphocytes already capable of mounting an immune response to the antigen. B cells: Types and Functions is important as well. For most species, sexual identification Identification Defense Mechanisms is based on the determination of features that distinguish a male from a female. However, in some cases, there are only a few physical features that distinguish the sexes, which is the case with most pigeon species, with the key difference being behavioral.

Following mate selection Selection Lymphocyte activation by a specific antigen thus triggering clonal expansion of lymphocytes already capable of mounting an immune response to the antigen. B cells: Types and Functions, courtship often occurs. During courtship, females are typically coy, prolonging the courtship on purpose to test the male and force him to work harder on his advances. Courtship is followed by copulation and the rearing of offspring.

Different mating strategies exist. Three of the most common types are:

  • Random mating, in which case there are no spatial, genetic, or behavioral limitations Limitations Conflict of Interest and there is high genetic variability
  • Dissociative mating, in which animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic often mate with those who have disparate traits
  • Assortative mating, which involves the non-random mating of animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic with similar genotypes or phenotypes

Applying game theory to animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic

Game theory uses mathematical models to make predictions about the behavior of animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic with the same interests. An animal requires an overall strategy to achieve success within a game. The strategy includes the goal and a plan to achieve that goal.

Animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic employ various tactics to achieve their goal.

When tactics are optimal choices, they are called evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS). An ESS is a strategy that cannot be replaced by a new strategy in the population.

The application of game theory requires a number of steps:

  1. Identification Identification Defense Mechanisms of possible strategies based on observations or logical thinking
  2. Identification Identification Defense Mechanisms of outcomes when different tactics are used
  3. Repetition of the game to determine the ESS
  4. Observation of animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic in the field to assess whether their behavioral strategies correlate with the predictions obtained from game theory application

Biological explanations of inclusive fitness and altruism Altruism Belief or practice of selfless concern for others. Defense Mechanisms in animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic

Inclusive fitness is a measure that assesses the number of an animal’s genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure present in subsequent generations, as well as the number of genes Genes A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms. DNA Types and Structure present in related individuals.

Altruism Altruism Belief or practice of selfless concern for others. Defense Mechanisms in animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic refers to self-destructive behavior that is carried out to benefit others. The benefit may be measured in units of inclusive fitness; thus, an altruistic act would be one that improves the inclusive fitness of other animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic at the expense of the individual’s own inclusive fitness. The benefit can also be defined in terms of survival, in which case an altruistic act is one that increases the survival chances of another animal while decreasing the altruistic-acting animal’s own survival chances. As an altruistic trait, parental care is beneficial to the development and survival of the offspring, but it is costly for the parents. Offspring are often regarded as passive recipients of parental care, though in reality, they actively demand care and influence their parents’ behavior and reproduction.

Altruistic behavior is also evident in animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic that provide care to young animals Animals Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain eukaryota. Cell Types: Eukaryotic versus Prokaryotic who are not their offspring but to whom they are related. For example, some nests of Florida scrub jays have “helpers” who are siblings of the young and contribute 30% of their food.

Discrimination

Discrimination is the prejudiced or unjust treatment of people based on their:

  • Race
  • Gender Gender Gender Dysphoria
  • Ethnicity
  • Sexual orientation Sexual orientation The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at puberty under the influence of gonadal steroids (testosterone or estradiol), and social effects. Sexual Physiology
  • Age
  • Disability Disability Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for social security and workman’s compensation benefits. ABCDE Assessment
  • Pay/ compensation Compensation Respiratory Acidosis
  • Health status
  • Genetic information

Individual discrimination refers to the prejudicial treatment by one individual member from one social group against another individual from a different social group.

Institutional discrimination refers to policies of the dominant institution that are intended to incur harmful or differential effects on the minority group. It includes the actions of individuals who control the dominant institution and implement their policies.

The relationship Relationship A connection, association, or involvement between 2 or more parties. Clinician–Patient Relationship between prejudice and discrimination

The word “prejudice” literally means “prejudgment.” As a concept, prejudice refers to the attitude directed toward people based on their membership in a specific social group. This attitude may be positive or negative.

Just as attitudes have a cognitive, affective, and behavioral component to them, so does prejudice. The cognitive component of prejudice consists of stereotyped thinking. The affective component relates to the feelings that individuals harbor toward stereotyped groups, such as admiration, hatred, or anger.

Prejudice is related to discrimination by its behavioral component. The behavioral aspect of prejudice consists of social discrimination, which involves differential treatment based on an individual’s membership in a social group.

How power, prestige, and class facilitate discrimination

People in positions of power may seek to maintain their status by implementing discrimination against certain groups. Those with authoritarian traits seek to protect themselves. To do so, they strongly identify with their in-group while discriminating against and looking down upon out-groups.

Furthermore, those with power, or in a higher-class situation, often have the means to discriminate against those who have less power or who are in a lower class.

It is illegal in many countries to discriminate against someone on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex Sex The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, phenotype, and genotype, differentiating the male from the female organism. Gender Dysphoria. In the United States, this was made into law in 1964 with Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 (EPA) makes it illegal to pay different wages to men and women if they perform equal work in the same workplace. Since 1964, multiple amendments have been made to the 1964 Civil Rights Act in the US, including making it illegal to discriminate against:

  • Women because of pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care, childbirth, or a medical condition related to pregnancy Pregnancy The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (embryos or fetuses) in utero before birth, beginning from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Physiology, and Care or childbirth
  • People 40 years of age or older
  • Qualified people with disabilities
  • Employees or applicants because of genetic information

References

  1. Myers, DG, & DeWall, CN 2021. Social support. Psychology (pp. 1864–1866). Worth Publishers. Kindle Edition. 
  2. Grav, S, Hellzèn, O, Romild, U, & Stordal, E. (2012). Association between social support and depression in the general population: The HUNT study, a cross-sectional survey. J Clin Nurs. 2012;21(1–2):111–20. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2011.03868.x
  3. Giddens, A, Duneier, M, Appelbaum, RP, & Carr, D. (2018). The individual and society. Introduction to Sociology, 11th ed., Kindle ed., pp. 43–96
  4. Holt-Lunstad, J. (2017). The potential public health relevance of social isolation and loneliness: Prevalence, epidemiology, and risk factors. Public Policy & Aging Report, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 127–30. DOI.org (Crossref), https://doi.org/10.1093/ppar/prx030
  5. Klinenberg, E. (2018). Is loneliness a Health Epidemic?” New York Times. NYTimes.com, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/02/09/opinion/sunday/loneliness-health.html
  6. Babb, D. (n.d.). History of the mule. https://www.mulemuseum.org/history-of-the-mule.html. Accessed 12 Aug. 2022.
  7. Laws Enforced by EEOC. (n.d.). https://www.eeoc.gov/statutes/laws-enforced-eeoc. Accessed 12 Aug. 2022.

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Complement your med school studies with Lecturio’s all-in-one study companion, delivered with evidence-based learning strategies.

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