Breathing and eating - two skills humans master from birth. The digestive system and the lungs are vital organs, and their complexity still poses many questions to physicians. In order to understand them and also their pathogenesis, one must know how they developed. Embryology helps to elucidate the structure, function and interrelationships of all organs. This article discusses, step by step, the development of the gastrointestinal tract and the bronchial system from the primitive gut tube
Congenital malformations are developmental disorders that arise before birth during the embryonic (2nd - 8th week of development) or fetal period (9th - 38th week of development) (from the Latin congenitus = "born with"). The cause may be genetic or contingent on external influences. The rate of incidence for children born alive is approximately 3 %. Toxic agents that may cause embryonic damage and malformations are called teratogens, and the study of the cause and characteristics of inherent malformations is called teratology (Gr. teras = monstrosity, marvel). Infections such as rubella, medications like thalidomide, drugs such as alcohol and tobacco, or radiation are all teratogens.
Your Educators of course Gastrointestinal Embryology
John McLachlan, PhD
John McLachlan is Professor of Medical Education at Durham University, is a UK National Teaching Fellow, and formerly Editor-in-Chief of the Journal "Medical Education".
He has been teaching Embryology to medical students for many years, apparently to their pleasure and benefit!
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