Attitude is the expression of favor or disfavor toward a person, place, thing, or event. Attitude is an individual’s own view regarding a certain subject. Multiple factors are responsible for the formation of attitudes. Additionally, attitudes can be learned and unlearned through various methods throughout our lives.
Last updated: Aug 12, 2022
Attitude is a set of beliefs, ideas, and behavioral tendencies directed at an object or event or toward other people. Attitude can be positive or negative and can be influenced by a number of different factors, some of which are listed below:
Multiple psychological models have been proposed to evaluate the structure of attitudes, the two most well-known models are described below:
The ABC model comprises the following components:
The MODE (motivation and opportunity as determinants [of the relationship Relationship A connection, association, or involvement between 2 or more parties. Clinician–Patient Relationship between attitude and behavior]) model states that attitudes can be measured in 2 different ways:
The learning theory of attitudes states that attitudes can be learned and unlearned through the use of principles such as classical conditioning, operant conditioning Operant conditioning Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced. Psychotherapy, and observational learning.
Classical conditioning involves learning a new behavior or attitude through the process of association between a neutral stimulus and a stimulus that naturally produces a behavior. Simply put, the 2 factors are linked together to produce a newly learned response. For example, if a person likes a certain perfume, they will find a person who is wearing that perfume attractive.
Operant conditioning Operant conditioning Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced. Psychotherapy is a process of learning a new behavior or attitude by receiving rewards or punishments (reinforcement) to produce a desired response. The behavior can be increased or decreased depending on the consequences of the response. For example, an employee who receives a monetary bonus (consequence/reinforcement) after completing a task on time will be encouraged to repeat that behavior. Similarly, a salary reduction for arriving to work late will encourage an employee to be punctual.
Observational learning (also known as modeling) involves learning by watching and imitating others. For example, a child may learn to play basketball by observing other children playing that game.
The cognitive dissonance theory states that we have an innate and powerful desire to keep all of our attitudes and beliefs consistent and in harmony. When there is an inconsistency, conflict, or disharmony between attitudes or behaviors (dissonance), it produces a feeling of discomfort and a desire to eliminate the dissonance.
For example, if a person who smokes (behavior) knows that smoking Smoking Willful or deliberate act of inhaling and exhaling smoke from burning substances or agents held by hand. Interstitial Lung Diseases causes cancer (cognition), this will create cognitive dissonance and psychological stress Psychological stress Stress wherein emotional factors predominate. Acute Stress Disorder that they will want to eliminate or reduce.
Cognitive dissonance can be reduced by 1 of the following 3 methods:
The classic story of the hungry fox and sour grapes also illustrates cognitive dissonance. When the hungry fox sees the grapes hanging on a tree, he is tempted to eat them, bu because they are hanging too high, he cannot reach them. So he comes up with the excuse that grapes are sour. In this story, the fox is reducing its dissonance by believing that the grapes are sour and not worthy of repeated attempts to get them.
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