Introduction to Epidemiology & Biostatistics

by Raywat Deonandan, PhD

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    About the Lecture

    The lecture Introduction to Epidemiology & Biostatistics by Raywat Deonandan, PhD is from the course Epidemiology and Biostatistics: Introduction. It contains the following chapters:

    • Course Overview and History of Epidemiology
    • Origin of Epidemiology
    • Terminology
    • Studies
    • Smallpox
    • Observational Epidemiology
    • Learning Outcomes

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Public health epidemiologist
    2. Population epidemiologist
    3. Environmental epidemiologist
    4. Clinical epidemiologist
    5. Social epidemiologist
    1. Ontology
    2. Epistemology
    3. Methodology
    4. Statistical analysis
    5. Defining knowledge
    1. What tools do we use to categorize knowledge?
    2. How do we acquire knowledge?
    3. How do we define knowledge?
    4. How is information processed into knowledge?
    5. What methods are used to define information?
    1. He drew a map to illustrate the cluster of cholera cases around the water pump.
    2. He used the cholera outbreak to confirm the miasmata theory.
    3. He was the first person to discover the germ theory of disease.
    4. He only drank boiled water throughout his life.
    5. He discovered that there were bacteria in the well water.
    1. Chlorine exposure
    2. Future height
    3. America
    4. Age
    5. US babies
    1. The mechanism by which the risk factor causes an outcome must be known.
    2. The risk factor is the independent variable of clinical epidemiological studies.
    3. A strong association between risk factors and outcomes can suggest, but does not confirm causality.
    4. Smoking is considered a risk factor for the future development of lung cancer.
    5. Risk factors are exposures that may increase or decrease the likelihood of certain conditions.
    1. Why does this disease occur?
    2. Who does this disease affect?
    3. Where are people acquiring this disease?
    4. When do people acquire this disease?
    5. What are the characteristics of this disease?
    1. Randomized controlled trial
    2. Case-control
    3. Ecological
    4. Cross-sectional
    5. Cohort
    1. The study involves the manipulation of a variable.
    2. The study involves statistical analysis of the results.
    3. The study involves two or more variables and the relationship between them.
    4. The study involves a question that determines causality.
    5. The study involves “why” a phenomenon occurs.
    1. Cross-sectional study
    2. Case control study
    3. Quasi-experiment
    4. Randomized controlled trial
    5. Cohort study
    1. A group of not immune people within the “herd” can avoid exposure to a disease by ensuring that a specific percentage of the herd is immune to the disease.
    2. By vaccinating a percentage of the population, the rest of the population develops immunity to the disease.
    3. The rate at which a disease will spread given the percentage of a population that is already immune.
    4. Every member of the herd must be immune to the disease to avoid propagation of the disease.
    5. A herd of cattle that has cowpox will be immune to smallpox.
    1. Milkmaids who worked on cows with cowpox also appeared to be immune to smallpox.
    2. Not all people exposed to smallpox died of the disease.
    3. Those who survived after being infected with smallpox were later immune to the disease.
    4. Cows were benign carriers of smallpox.
    5. Those who were inoculated with a disease would transfer the disease to those around them.
    1. They calculated the proportion of the population who needed to be vaccinated for herd immunity to be effective.
    2. They determined the location where smallpox infections were originating.
    3. They encouraged community members to avoid those who were infected with the disease.
    4. They studied why only a proportion of those infected with smallpox died of the disease.
    5. They calculated the number of remaining smallpox infections in the world and determined who should be isolated.
    1. Collecting, analyzing and interpreting large volumes of data related to the incidence and prevalence of a specific disease in a population.
    2. Monitoring disease activity in a small group of patients to determine causal relationships with exposures.
    3. Systematic collection and interpretation of health-related data needed for planning, implementation and evaluation of public health practices.
    4. Analyzing changes in diseases over time or over populations.
    5. Determining whether a disease is identifiable using specific tests.
    1. Deciding to use a test as a screening tool for a specific patient.
    2. Deciding whether or not we can use a test in a specific context.
    3. Determining if a study design adequately assesses the validity of a certain test.
    4. Deciding whether or not a test is a viable screening tool for a specific condition.
    5. Determining the specificity and sensitivity of a diagnostic test.
    1. Epidemiology is the search for causative factors in disease incidence and progression.
    2. Epidemiology provides the means to discover associations between outcomes and exposures.
    3. Population epidemiologists are responsible for disease surveillance and interpret the data received from notifiable disease registries.
    4. Observational epidemiology is useful for understanding morbidity and mortality from diseases in a population.
    5. Epidemiology involves using an unbiased systematic approach to collection, analysis and interpretation of data.

    Author of lecture Introduction to Epidemiology & Biostatistics

     Raywat Deonandan, PhD

    Raywat Deonandan, PhD

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    I felt his passion for epidemiology
    By Mariane B. on 23. February 2017 for Introduction to Epidemiology & Biostatistics

    I felt his passion for epidemiology! It is great that history was integrated in the lecture. In the Philippine boards, they asked: Who is John Snow?

    Great class!
    By Georgia J. on 11. January 2017 for Introduction to Epidemiology & Biostatistics

    Great class! Very easy to understand and very helpful! I would recommend .

    By Arankanathan T. on 19. December 2016 for Introduction to Epidemiology & Biostatistics

    Excellent , easy to understand , nice notes and description , makes it interesting.