Types of Study Designs: Interventional Studies

by Raywat Deonandan, PhD

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    Hello and welcome to epidemiology. Today we're going to look at what I think is your favorite study design. I think so because it's probably the most famous study design, the most important one and definitely the most expensive one. It's the foundation of drug delivery. It's the randomized controlled trial or randomized clinical trial or RCT. It's a kind of experiment. In fact we'll be talking about all kinds of experiments in this lecture. After this lecture, you're going to know the characteristics of a randomized controlled trial or RCT. You're going to know why some RCTs are blinded. You'll know what that means after today as well. You're going to know the characteristics of a quasi-experiment, which is like an experiment but not quite. You're going to know the characteristics of what's called a natural experiment and about something called an ecological study, which may or may not be an experiment, but we'd like to talk about it in the same breath as experiments. So a randomized controlled trial is a kind of a experiment, it's also the gold standard for evidence. We like to use that term a lot, gold standard. Iit's our best test for evidence in terms of causality, does this cause that, does an exposure cause an outcome, does a drug actually cause a change in the patient. It's the highest form of proof that one thing causes another and pretty much every approved drug or treatment or therapy or technology on the market has gone through at least one rigorous round of RCT testing before the government allows it onto the marketplace. So today in this lecture, we're going to cover where experiments fit onto the big map of study designs that we keep going back to. We're going to look at the...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Types of Study Designs: Interventional Studies by Raywat Deonandan, PhD is from the course Types of Studies. It contains the following chapters:

    • What is RCT?
    • RCT - Advantages and Disadvantages
    • Groups
    • Blinding
    • Experimentd
    • Ecological Study
    • Learning Outcomes

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. It would be unethical.
    2. The associated costs are too high.
    1. Intent to Treat
    2. On protocol (or Per protocol)
    1. Failing to reject the null hypothesis
    2. Rejecting the null hypothesis
    1. In many cases, it is not ethical to knowingly give members of the control group a therapy that has no positive effect.
    2. Pragmatically, almost every new treatment will be better than placebo. What we care about, in practice, is whether the new treatment is better than the current treatment.
    3. Cost.
    1. Randomization heightens the chance that uncontrolled characteristics are evenly distributed between the two groups.
    2. Randomization improves the overall balance (i.e., number of subjects in each study arm).
    1. Quasi-experiment
    2. RCT
    3. Cohort
    4. Case-control

    Author of lecture Types of Study Designs: Interventional Studies

     Raywat Deonandan, PhD

    Raywat Deonandan, PhD

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