BPH: Nursing Diagnosis

Nursing Knowledge

BPH: Nursing Diagnosis

Benign prostatic hypertrophy refers to the noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland, a common condition especially in older men. It commonly causes urinary difficulties like nocturia, difficulty emptying the bladder, or infections. Nurses play a pivotal role in monitoring urinary patterns, administering medications, educating patients on self-care, and identifying complications.
Last updated: December 4, 2023

Table of contents

What is benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)? 

Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) is the nonmalignant growth of prostate tissue. BPH increases in prevalence with age, affecting 50%–60% of men in their 60s and 70%–80% of men in their 80s.

Prostate enlargement leads to bladder outlet obstruction, with both static and dynamic components: 

  • Static: enlarged prostate compresses urethra; distortion of bladder outlet
  • Dynamic: increased tension in prostate smooth muscle; decreased elasticity in prostatic urethra 

Risk factors for BPH

The risk of developing BPH increases with: 

  • Genetic predisposition
  • Metabolic syndromes
  • Hypertension
  • Obesity

Symptoms of BPH 

Common symptoms of prostatic hypertrophy include: 

  • Difficulty starting, stopping, maintaining urine stream
  • Difficulty emptying bladder
  • Urgency, frequency, nocturia

Nursing diagnosis for BPH 

Potential nursing diagnoses for benign prostatic hypertrophy include: 

  • Impaired urinary elimination 
  • Acute pain related to bladder distention or catheter placement
  • Risk for infection related to urinary retention 

Nursing interventions for BPH

Interventions addressing nursing diagnoses

  • Impaired urinary elimination: monitor frequency, amount, presence of blood in urine; encourage patient to void at regular intervals and when urge is felt; teach client to avoid fluids before bed and instruct on double-voiding 
  • Acute pain: prescribed analgesics, monitor for bladder distention and catheter blockage 
  • Risk for infection: maintain closed urinary drainage system if catheter is present; teach the patient proper perineal hygiene; encourage adequate fluid intake; monitor for signs of infection  

Best medication for enlarged prostate

  • 5-α-reductase inhibitors (finasteride, dutasteride): shrink prostate epithelial tissue; best for mechanical obstruction
  • α-1 adrenergic antagonists (tamsulosin): relaxes smooth muscle in the prostate—prostate capsule, urethra, bladder neck (trigone & sphincter);helps with dynamic obstruction

Treatment is most effective when both classes of medication are used in combination therapy. 

Best surgery for enlarged prostate

Surgical treatment options for BPH include: 

  • Transurethral resection (TURP), most common
  • Prostatectomy
  • Laser anucleation (HoLEP)
  • UroLift®

Choice of surgery depends on the individual and factors like size of the prostate, overall health, and severity of symptoms. 


BPH: Nursing Diagnosis

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Overview of BPH; risk factors, symptoms, pharmacological management, and client education

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