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Haloalkanes

by Adam Le Gresley, PhD
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    Okay, now, I want to bring you on to the lecture that deals with Haloalkanes. Over the course of the Module III, you’ll see that we’re going to be covering a number of different so called “functional groups”. These are groups which are important in terms of not only synthetic pathways, but also in terms of biological application, medical application that results from that. The general formula for haloalkanes is R-X, where X is one of the halogens either fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine. But, before we move on to how they react and with what, let’s just have a quick look at their nomenclature. As you can see, at the bottom of the board, we’ve got two different types of haloalkanes. We have 2-bromobutane and we have also 3-bromo-4-ethylheptane. And I want to briefly talk to you a little bit about priority, when it comes to assigning them a nomenclature. This is important not just for the compounds that you produce, but also when you’re using starting material that is labelled accordingly. Typically speaking, when you’re looking at something which has a large atomic mass in comparison to carbon, it takes priority. So, if you look at Bromine, for example, with a mass of over 80 grams per mole, it takes priority. And the numbering goes from the closest terminal carbon to that substituent; the closest being the 1-carbon away, which we’ve denoted 1 in the case of 2-bromobutane. We then count along 1, 2, 3 and 4. And so, we can therefore say, bromine, where it’s positioned is 2. And therefore, as a halogen, the halogen component appears as a prefix to the alkane chain itself: Halo-ane. If we look at 3-bromo-4-ethylheptane, we’ll see the same thing. The nearest terminal carbon to where the bromine is substituted is...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Haloalkanes by Adam Le Gresley, PhD is from the course Organic Chemistry. It contains the following chapters:

    • Haloalkanes
    • Nucleophilic substitution
    • Reaction parameters
    • SN 1 Reaction
    • Summary SN 1 vs. SN 2
    • Eliminiation reactions

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. 2-chloro-5-methylhexane
    2. 6-methyl-2-chlorohexane
    3. 5-chloro-2-methylhexane
    4. 2-methyl-5-chlorohexane
    5. None of the above
    1. CH3CHBrCH3
    2. CH3CH2CH2Br
    3. CH3CHBrCH2Br
    4. No Reaction
    5. BrCH2CH2CH2Br
    1. Trans or Entgegen (E)
    2. Cis or Zusammen (Z)
    3. Racemisation
    4. No preference
    5. Mixture of Z and E

    Author of lecture Haloalkanes

     Adam Le Gresley, PhD

    Adam Le Gresley, PhD


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