Carbonyl Compounds

by Adam Le Gresley, PhD

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    Right. Okay. So, now, I would like to talk to you about a very key functional group and that is the carbonyl functional group. Here, we can see on the board two examples of carbonyl functional groups, the aldehyde and the ketone. Note the difference between the two. In the case of the ketone, we have a single substitution on the carbonyl carbon. This is the carbon double bond oxygen with the remaining valency on that carbon being taken up by a carbon-hydrogen sigma bond. In the case of the ketone, however, we have substitution on both sides, either via a mixture or combination of aromatic and aliphatic substituents. Going back to what we said about aromatics, of course, benzene rings, naphthalene etc. or indeed alkyl rings such as methyl, propyl or butyl and this fundamentally informs how they react and also some of their properties. So, let’s have a look at carboxyl compounds just briefly. There will be a lecture, the next lecture, that covers other reactivity of these carboxyl compounds, but I want to introduce right now the concept of them because they feature our friend, the carbonyl functional group, where we have R as an aliphatic or aromatic joined to a carbon double bound to an oxygen, and it is this that actually informs the reactivity both of carbonyl and carboxyl reagents due to the properties of the carbon double bound to the oxygen. I’ve shown here Z correlating to a group or groups which can be attached to that carbon such as the OH group, the OR or alkoxy group, the NR or amine group that’s giving us an amide and a hydride which can be formed from another equivalent of acetic or alkanoic acids and indeed, halide group. I’m not going to go into too...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Carbonyl Compounds by Adam Le Gresley, PhD is from the course Organic Chemistry. It contains the following chapters:

    • Carbonyl compounds
    • Carbonyl structure
    • Nucleophilic addition
    • Carbohydrates
    • Oxidation

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. sucrose
    2. glucose
    3. ribose
    4. fructose
    5. allose

    Author of lecture Carbonyl Compounds

     Adam Le Gresley, PhD

    Adam Le Gresley, PhD

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