The Alkanes and Alkenes

by Adam Le Gresley, PhD

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    Right. Now, we are into Module III where we start looking at Organic Chemistry. And so, I would like to introduce you to some of the basic functional groups that you will encounter over the course of this particular module. In this lecture, we are going to be looking at alkenes and alkynes. And here’s a bit of nomenclature revision for you dealing with alkenes in particular. If a compound contains a double bond, such as those shown here on the board, the name of it is given by the suffix “ene”. A number prefix is used to denote the position of this unsaturation. And indeed, whenever you see an alkane molecule with a double bond in it, it automatically becomes an alkene and is considered, therefore, unsaturated. Alkanes are, by their very definition, saturated. But, from a synthetic chemistry perspective, since all we tend to do with alkanes is set fire to them, it really isn’t that important that we cover them as part of this module. So, for example, if we look at the compound… the first compound with the terminal alkene i.e. the double bond in the terminal position, we can see that that is called 1-butene. This is because we have a double bond and it is in the first position. Where we have an internal alkene, such as that shown in the middle, we call that a 2-butene. And where we have a multiple double bonds, such as in the case of our ‘diene’ compound, we would refer to it as,, in this case as a 1,3-butadiene. Note, the origins of the ‘but’ part comes from the fact that it is four carbon atoms in length. And if you recall, the way it goes is methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, heptyl and octyl, as...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture The Alkanes and Alkenes by Adam Le Gresley, PhD is from the course Organic Chemistry. It contains the following chapters:

    • The alkanes and alkenes
    • Nucleophiles and electrophiles
    • Electrophilic attack
    • Stability of carbocations
    • Addition of halogens
    • Addition reactions

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. CN-
    2. NO2+
    3. Br+
    4. BH3
    5. Cl+
    1. CH3-CH=CH-CH3
    2. CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3
    3. C6H12
    4. CH3¬-CH2-CHCH3-CH3
    5. CH3-CHCH3-CHCH3-CH3
    1. …nucleophile.
    2. …electrophile.
    3. …carbocation.
    4. …carbanion.
    5. …a negatively charged ion.
    1. H2SO4
    2. NaOH
    3. Acetic acid
    4. CH3NH2
    5. HCOOH
    1. …Tertiary > Secondary > Primary > Methyl.
    2. …Tertiary > Methyl > Secondary > Primary.
    3. …Primary > Secondary > Tertiary > Methyl.
    4. …Methyl > Tertiary > Secondary > Primary.
    5. …Methyl > Primary > Secondary > Tertiary.
    1. …electron releasing effect of the alkyl group.
    2. …electron withdrawing effect of the alkyl group.
    3. …electron releasing effect of H.
    4. …electron withdrawing effect of H.
    5. …electron withdrawing effect of halogens.
    1. having the most electron donating groups attached to it.
    2. having the most electron withdrawing groups attached to it.
    3. being the least subsituted.
    4. already possessing a postive charge.
    5. being substiuted by a halogen
    1. Carbon with maximum number of H
    2. Carbon with one alkyl group
    3. Carbon with one alkyl group and one H
    4. Carbon with two alkyl groups
    5. Carbon with an aromatic group
    1. At carbon 2
    2. At carbon 1
    3. At carbon 3
    4. At carbon 4
    5. At carbon 5
    1. …catalytic effect of H2SO4.
    2. …inductive effect of the alkyl group.
    3. …generation of SO4-.
    4. …Markovnikov’s rule.
    5. …generation of H+.
    1. Metal
    2. Bromine water
    3. H2SO4
    4. NaOH
    5. Chlorine
    1. Hept-3-en-1-yne
    2. Heptane-3-en-1yne
    3. Hept-4-en-6-yne
    4. Hept-1-yne-3-en
    5. Heptane-1-yne-3-en
    1. 2-Chlorobutene
    2. 1-Chlorobutene
    3. 1,2-Dichlorobutene
    4. Butene
    5. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachlorobutane
    1. …cis- isomer of 2-Pentene.
    2. …trans- isomer of 2-Pentene.
    3. …mixture of cis- and Trans- isomers of 2-Pentene.
    4. …pentane.
    5. …mixture of cis- and trans- isomers of 2-Pentene along with pentane.
    1. Lindlar’s catalyst or Na dissolved in liquid ammonia
    2. H2 in the presence of Ni or Pt
    3. Sodium
    4. Liquid ammonia
    5. H2 in the presence of halogen
    1. …CH3-CH=CH-C3H7.
    2. …CH3-CH2-CH=CH2.
    3. …(CH3)2C=C(CH3)2.
    4. …CH3-CH=CH2.
    5. …CH2=CH2.
    1. …restricted rotation of double bond.
    2. …distinct chemical properties.
    3. …distinct physical properties.
    4. …presence of two different alkyl groups on same carbon.
    5. …distinct chemical properties of different alkyl groups.

    Author of lecture The Alkanes and Alkenes

     Adam Le Gresley, PhD

    Adam Le Gresley, PhD

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