Lectures

Alcohols

by Adam Le Gresley, PhD
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    Right. Okay. Now, we’re going to be talking about alcohols. They have the general formula of ROH, when R is an alkyl group and OH is a hydroxyl group in this context. In a moment, we’ll be talking about the nomenclature. The origins of alcohol stems from the name al-kuhl in Arabic meaning volatile. The nomenclature is shown here. In the example of 3-methyl-1-butanol, the final ‘e’ of the alkene homologous series is replaced with the -ol suffix “ol”. In this scenario, as we said before, when we actually have a group which takes priority, the numbering system relates to the carbon to which it’s nearest. In this case, the OH is attached in the case of the 3-methyl-1-butanol in the terminal position. The carbon to which the OH is attached, therefore, takes the number 1 counting backwards along the longest chain 2, 3, 4. This gives you 3-methyl-1-butanol. When we have cyclic alcohols, such as in the case of cyclopentanol, we put cyclo in front of the name and the suffix remains the same. At the bottom, you can see some examples of what are known as methyl alcohols: primary, secondary and tertiary. The methyl-1 has only one member of its family which is methanol. We’ve come across this before. The second one, where the OH group is attached to the terminal carbon on an alkane chain, is the primary alcohol. In this case, butan-1-ol although sometimes you’ll see it referred to as n-butanol. The secondary alcohol, where indeed the OH is attached to a carbon which bears two alkyl groups, would, in this case, be butan-2-ol, otherwise known as sec-butanol. And finally, the tertiary to which the OH is attached to a carbon-bearing 3 alkyl groups on it. In this case, the old nomenclature would have been tertiary...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Alcohols by Adam Le Gresley, PhD is from the course Organic Chemistry. It contains the following chapters:

    • Alcohols
    • Hydrogen bonds
    • Formation of alkyl halides
    • Elimination of water
    • Ester formation
    • Redox reactions and enzymes

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. alkoxide with an alkyl halide.
    2. alcohol with a metal.
    3. alkyl halide with an aldehyde.
    4. alkoxide with a metal.
    5. two alcohols
    1. SOCl2
    2. PCl3
    3. HCl
    4. CCl4
    5. CHCl3

    Author of lecture Alcohols

     Adam Le Gresley, PhD

    Adam Le Gresley, PhD


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