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Pneumothorax, Pleural Effusion & Obstructive Sleep Apnea

by Carlo Raj, MD
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    About the Lecture

    The lecture Pneumothorax, Pleural Effusion & Obstructive Sleep Apnea by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Disorders of the pulmonary circulation and the respiratory regulation. It contains the following chapters:

    • Pneumothorax
    • Pleural Effusion
    • Physical Findings of the Lung
    • Sleep Apnea
    • Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    • OSA: Differential Diagnosis
    • OSA: Treatment

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Accumulation of air between the visceral and parietal pleura of the lung
    2. Alveolar collapse with reduced or absent gas exchange
    3. Accumulation of air or fluid in the pericardial cavity
    4. Fluid accumulation between the visceral and parietal pleura of the lung
    5. Accumulation of free air or gas in the mediastinum
    1. Tall, thin, young male
    2. Obese female in her 5th decade of life
    3. Young adult with delayed puberty
    4. Short statured female with webbed neck
    5. Excessive alcohol use in male or female
    1. Gun shot wound
    2. Rupture of subpleural cyst
    3. Pneumonia
    4. Mechanical ventilation injury
    5. Bullous emphysema
    1. Clinical diagnosis
    2. Chest radiograph
    3. Chest computed tomography
    4. Arterial Blood Gas
    5. Chest ultrasound
    1. Emergent thoracocentesis
    2. Ultrasound guided chest tube placement
    3. Pulmonary function testing
    4. Oxygen supplementation
    5. CXR
    1. Cirrhosis
    2. Pneumonia
    3. Trauma
    4. Malignancy
    5. Collagen vascular disease
    1. Congestive heart failure
    2. Superior vena cava obstruction
    3. Pulmonary embolism
    4. Thoracic duct injury
    5. Malignancy
    1. Increased capillary permeability
    2. Decreased vascular oncotic pressure
    3. None of the answers are correct
    4. Decreased hormonal influence on vasoconstriction
    5. Increased vascular hydrostatic pressure
    1. Hyperresonance on percussion
    2. Vesicular breath sounds
    3. Tracheal deviation
    4. Inspiratory crackles
    5. Decreased tactile fremitus
    1. Bronchial breath sounds
    2. Hypoxemia
    3. Tracheal deviation towards the affected side
    4. Decreased tactile fremitus
    5. Dull to percussion
    1. Pleural protein/serum protein < 0.5
    2. Pleural LDH/serum LDH > 0.6
    3. WBC > 1000 per cubic millimeter
    4. pH < 7
    5. Pleural cholesterol > 45 mg/dL
    1. Triglycerides
    2. pH
    3. LDH
    4. RBCs
    5. WBCs
    1. Nighttime Cessation of breathing > 10 s
    2. Daytime Hypoxemia
    3. Nighttime Snoring
    4. Daytime somnolence
    5. Nighttime Hypercapnea at night
    1. Primary polycythemia
    2. Pulmonary hypertension
    3. Sudden death
    4. Cardiac arrhythmias
    5. Systemic hypertension
    1. …adenotonsillar hypertrophy.
    2. …excess parapharyngeal tissue.
    3. …opioid use.
    4. ...CNS injury.
    5. …obesity.
    1. 30 year old with a history of opioid abuse, currently on methadone maintenance therapy.
    2. 60 year old with a history of well-controlled hypertension
    3. 50 year old with a BMI > 30 with right heart failure.
    4. 20 year old with a history of asthma, who reports waking up at night gasping for air.
    5. 40 year old with a BMI > 25 with a neck circumference of 17 inches.
    1. Avoidance of sedatives and alcohol
    2. Low salt diet
    3. High protein diet
    4. Increase daily sleep amount
    5. Increase intake of fruits and vegetables
    1. ...daytime hypoxemia.
    2. ...snoring.
    3. ...morning headaches.
    4. ...systemic hypertension.
    5. ...daytime hypersomnolence.
    1. Neck circumference > 16.5 inches (42 cm)
    2. BMI > 20
    3. Pulmonary hypertension
    4. Alcohol use
    5. Daytime somnolence
    1. Overnight polysomnography
    2. Complete blood count
    3. Echocardiogram
    4. Right heart catheterization
    5. Pulmonary function test
    1. Weight loss
    2. CPAP
    3. Tracheostomy
    4. ENT surgery
    5. BiPAP
    1. Patient Compliance
    2. Proper device usage
    3. Risk for barotrauma
    4. Mucosal irritation
    5. Device maintenance
    1. Hypercapnea
    2. Hypoxemia
    3. Daytime somnolence
    4. Snoring
    5. Hypertension
    1. BiPAP support
    2. CPAP support
    3. Progesterone (respiratory stimulant)
    4. Tracheostomy
    5. Endotracheal intubation with mechanical ventilation
    1. Pickwickian syndrome
    2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    3. Pick’s disease
    4. Dandy-Walker syndrome
    5. Benedikt syndrome

    Author of lecture Pneumothorax, Pleural Effusion & Obstructive Sleep Apnea

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


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