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Valvular Heart Disease: Mitral Regurgitation and Valve Prolapse

by Carlo Raj, MD
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    About the Lecture

    The lecture Valvular Heart Disease: Mitral Regurgitation and Valve Prolapse by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Valvular Heart Disease. It contains the following chapters:

    • Mitral Regurgitation
    • Pathogenesis
    • Visualisation
    • Signs & Symptoms
    • Mitral Valve Prolapse: Introduction
    • Mitral Valve Prolapse: Examination

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Syphilis
    2. Endocarditis
    3. Rheumatic Heart Disease
    4. Ehler-Danlos
    5. Marfan's
    1. Difficulty closing the valve during systole.
    2. Difficulty opening the valve during systole.
    3. Difficulty closing the valve during diastole.
    4. Difficulty opening the valve during diastole.
    5. Bulging of the mitral leaflets.
    1. Left atrium and left ventricle are both enlarged.
    2. Left atrium alone is enlarged.
    3. Left ventricle alone is enlarged.
    4. None of the above.
    5. Interventricular septum is enlarged.
    1. Acute MR will show high pressure in the left atrium.
    2. Chronic MR will show high pressure in the left atrium.
    3. Chronic MR will show high pressure in the left atrium AND the left ventricle.
    4. Acute MR will show normal pressure in the left atrium.
    5. Chronic MR will show high pressure in the left ventricle.
    1. Papillary muscle rupture
    2. Rheumatic heart disease
    3. Endocarditis
    4. Marfan's
    5. Bicuspid valve
    1. Blood is entering the left atrium from both the pulmonary veins and the left ventricle.
    2. Compliance of the left atrium is greater in mitral stenosis compared to mitral regurgitation.
    3. The left ventricle enlarges and compresses the left atrium.
    4. All of the above.
    5. None of the above.
    1. Left atrial wall compliance increases and dilates.
    2. Left atrial wall compliance decreases and dilates.
    3. Thickening of the atrial wall causes a decrease in chamber size.
    4. Increase in stroke volume allows left atrium to compensate for the increase blood volume.
    5. Decrease in venous return results from global decrease in cardiac output.
    1. Both will eventually lead to lateral displacement of the apex.
    2. Both involve a disturbance between the left atrium and left ventricle.
    3. Both involve increased pressure in the left atrium.
    4. Both result in pulmonary edema.
    5. Both may be caused by rheumatic heart disease.
    1. Blowing holosystolic murmur best heard at the apex radiating to the apex.
    2. Midsystolic click following by late systolic decrescendo murmur.
    3. Ejection type systolic murmur.
    4. Opening snap followed by mid-diastolic rumble.
    5. Machine-like pansystolic murmur.
    1. Myxomatous degeneration.
    2. Pulmonary hypertension.
    3. Increased left atrial pressure.
    4. Increased left ventricular hypertrophy (eccentric).
    5. Laterally displaced apex.
    1. Mitral valve prolapse.
    2. Mitral regurgitation.
    3. Mitral stenosis.
    4. Aortic regurgitation.
    5. Aortic stenosis.
    1. Asymptomatic and benign.
    2. Anxiety and panic attacks.
    3. Dyspnea on exertion.
    4. Laterally displaced apex.
    5. Syncope, presyncope.
    1. Connective tissue disorders.
    2. Rheumatic heart disease.
    3. Endocarditis.
    4. Myocarditis.
    5. Ankylosing spondylitis.
    1. Exercise increases preload by inducing venoconstriction.
    2. Exercise improves the cardiac output of the heart for better overall stroke volume.
    3. Exercise causes a decrease in afterload due to arterial vasodilation.
    4. Exercise induced sympathetic outflow increases heart rate and cardiac contractility.
    5. Exercise is NOT recommended in these patients due to increased risk of sudden cardiac death.
    1. Rapid squatting.
    2. Valsalva phase II.
    3. Standing.
    4. Hand grip.
    5. None of the above.
    1. New onset holosystolic murmur.
    2. Decrease in the S1-click interval.
    3. Syncope.
    4. Lateral displacement of the apex.
    5. Increase in murmur intensity on standing.
    1. Beta blockers to slow heart rate.
    2. Diuretics to reduce preload.
    3. Nitrates to reduce preload and afterload.
    4. ACE inhibitors to reduce fluid overload.
    5. Warfarin for anticoagulation.

    Author of lecture Valvular Heart Disease: Mitral Regurgitation and Valve Prolapse

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


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