Ranges of Movement in the Joints of the Upper Limbs

by James Pickering, PhD

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    00:01 So, now, let's talk about the movement.

    00:03 We've spoken about the bones, how they articulate briefly.

    00:06 We'll talk a lot more about the articulations when we talk about the joints specifically.

    00:10 This is just an introduction to those bony regions. Let's talk about the movements that occur at some of these.

    00:17 So, here, we have the sternoclavicular joint. That allows depression and it also allows elevation and you can see here how the shoulder joint can be elevated and depressed.

    00:29 The sternoclavicular joint also allows this protraction, so, moving your shoulder forward.

    00:35 And also, retraction which is moving it backwards.

    00:38 So, this is similar when you're doing a bench press, say, at the gym, and you're moving your shoulder forward.

    00:43 If we look at the shoulder joint, the shoulder can do it in an increasingly diverse range of movements.

    00:50 Here, we have the shoulder joint being adducted and here, we have the shoulder being abducted.

    00:55 And see, how we have a very large range of movement here.

    00:59 It can continue all the way to being elevated to being positioned alongside the skull.

    01:05 If you then carry on looking at the shoulder joint, we can see how it can be extended and we can see how it can be flexed. We can see flexion moving forward called anteversion here and how it can be extended as we're calling it retroversion.

    01:19 So, you see a real diverse range of movements here within the shoulder joint.

    01:24 If we carry on with the shoulder joint, we can also see how it can rotate forwards, so, we have this internal rotation, so, the shoulders being turned towards the thorax.

    01:33 And then, we have this external rotation where the shoulder joint is being turned away from the thorax.

    01:39 So, we have like I said, a large range of movements at the shoulder joint.

    01:45 Here, we have the scapula that can move and again, a number of movements but the degree and the range of those movements is not as much as the shoulder joint.

    01:53 The scapula can be elevated and it can also be depressed as we can see there.

    01:58 Continuing movement of the scapula, as the shoulder joint can be protracted and retracted, obviously, the scapula will be able to do that because the only way the shoulder joint is attached is via the scapula, so, those two movements have to happen at the same time.

    02:14 We can also see how the scapula can move outwards.

    02:17 We can see we have upward rotation of the scapula and we can also see how we have downward rotation.

    02:23 So, if you want to swing your arms above or move your arms behind your back.

    02:27 We have a large range of movement. At the elbow joint, I mentioned there's a couple of ranges of movement.

    02:32 We have extension where the olecranon will sit in the olecranon fossa.

    02:36 And then, we also have full flexion which we can see here. Again, I spoke about supination and pronation.

    02:44 So, here, we can see the rotation of the proximal head of the radius. We can see that rotating.

    02:49 And now, the distal head, as you remember, see how it goes over the distal head of the ulna.

    02:55 So, if we just go back to see that movement, we see supination as if you're holding a cup of soup and then, if we were to tip that cup of soup over, we'll be in a pronated position.

    03:05 So, supination and then, pronation. And we can talk about the muscles that do this later on.

    03:13 Let's then move to the wrist and we can see we have quite a wide range of movements again for the wrist as you would imagine, we have extension and we also have flexion.

    03:22 You'll also be able to see how we can adduct the wrist and how we can abduct the wrist.

    03:29 Okay. So, we can move abduction the wrist away from our body and we can move the wrist towards our body with adduction.

    03:37 We can also see as you'd expect our fingers to be able to move outwards.

    03:41 So, this time, abduction and adduction doesn't move towards or away from the central midline of the body.

    03:46 But the move away or towards the midline through the third digit.

    03:51 And we can see abduction moving away from that third digit and adduction moving towards that third digit.

    03:59 So, some very important movements there of the hand. A movement that doesn't have a great deal of range to it but rotation and circumduction of the individual fingers can occur but this is rarely small minor movement and you can kind of manipulate that yourself but it's a very minor movement.

    04:17 Then, to start finishing up with these range of movements, we have flexion of the fingers.

    04:21 We have very minimal extension of the fingers and this can also happen within the interphalangeal joints where each of the digits can flex and they can extend.

    04:31 So, we have a large range of movements throughout the upper limb and we'll keep touching back on these as we talk about the muscles that attach to the bony structures and allow various different movements to take place.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Ranges of Movement in the Joints of the Upper Limbs by James Pickering, PhD is from the course Joints of the Upper Limbs.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Triquetrum
    2. Trapezoid
    3. Scaphoid
    4. Lunate
    5. Pisiform

    Author of lecture Ranges of Movement in the Joints of the Upper Limbs

     James Pickering, PhD

    James Pickering, PhD

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