Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus – Hyperglycemia

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    Let’s talk about type I, epidemiology: early age. Remember when I say early, we’re not talking just infants, huh? Even 20, 22, 24, young. With type I, insulin or non-insulin dependent? Good, insulin dependent. Weight usually normal, they won’t be obese; genetic predisposition, 50 percent amongst twins. HLA, definitely know about DQ, also know about DR3 and 4, those links you definitely want to know; pathophysiology, ah, autoimmunity. So, apart from genetic, which could be a component, autoimmune disease. What if you have autoimmune disease of the thyroid, what’s that called? I’m sorry, I can’t hear you. Good, Hashimoto. Autoimmune disease of the adrenals, what’s that called? Addison’s. Autoimmune disease of the pancreas, what’s this called? Type I diabetes. Put those together, give me diagnosis… polyglandular endocrinopathies… do not forget that. Polyglandular? poly - many glands, these three… thyroid, pancreas, adrenal pathology… endocrinopathy. Carbohydrate intolerance with hyperglycemia. Clinical PPP… polyphagia, polyuria, polydipsia; acute complication… DKA. Now, with the autoimmune disease, I told you that for the most part, your patient walking through that door with type I diabetes doesn’t have insulin. Hence, pump, right, the insulin pump becomes your only alternative. Theoretically, if there was a time in which you can actually measure your autoimmunity, you’d find the phenomenon in type I diabetes called insulitis. Some immunologists will call type I diabetic a type II hypersensitivity. Many immunologists will call type I diabetic a type IV hypersensitivity. Destruction of pancreatic beta cells resulting in complete lack of insulin… insulitis. It’s a reaction that’s occurring early on, an autoimmune destruction of your beta islet cells. Immune-mediated process, type II, type IV, they will not have you choose between the two, but usually, you-you’ll be referring to type IV. Often detectable antibodies directed against pancreatic islet cells. You tell me what kind...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus – Hyperglycemia by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Pancreatic Disease & Diabetes.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. HLA-DQ
    2. HLA-D6
    3. HLA-B27
    4. HLA-B17
    5. HLA-Q19
    1. Destruction of β islet cells of the pancreas
    2. Hyperplasia of of β islet cells of the pancreas
    3. Ectopic production of β islet cells of the pancreas
    4. Genetic mutation of β islet cells of the pancreas
    5. Differentiation of β islet cells of the pancreas
    1. GAD65
    2. TPO
    3. dsDNA
    4. sp100
    5. Histones

    Author of lecture Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus – Hyperglycemia

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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