Lectures

Thyroid Hormone Function

by Carlo Raj, MD
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    With this discussion of integrated thyroid hormone functioning, first it’s important for us to map out this illustration. Begin by looking at the blood side, the blood side would be the basolateral membrane. In the basolateral membrane, you have a symport, but moving in the same direction. The two elements moving in would be sodium and iodide… symport. The numbers here will then correspond with the explanations that are upcoming, but it is first imperative that you have a good picture in your head of what quickly an integrated thyroid hormone synthesis would look like. Once you get to iodide and sodium inside your follicular epithelial cell, which is the middle portion, with the help of, what’s the receptor that you would have here on your thyroid gland, the TSH receptor, which is acted upon by TSH or that receptor could be pathologically be stimulated by TSI, thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin. Next, once you have the iodide inside, then you have a very important enzyme that you would be paying attention to, go ahead and skip over to number three and four. I’m not going to walk you through in great detail the physiology. It’s important that you are able to locate a very important enzyme that’s critical for thyroid hormone synthesis and that being your peroxidase and that has a number of key functions or responsible for key steps in thyroid hormone synthesis. There are drugs here that would inhibit that enzyme and we have pathologies such as Hashimoto in which you might have antibodies that are attacking your peroxidase therefore rendering your thyroid hormone synthesis null and void. On a sad note, I’d like for you to take a look at the follicular epithelial cell and pay attention to now here a very important binding globulin of your thyroid...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Thyroid Hormone Function by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Thyroid Gland Disorders.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Iodide is transported into follicular cell via sodium-iodide symporter
    2. Sodium is necessary in the forming of the enzyme peroxidase
    3. Sodium helps catalyze the reaction from iodine to iodide
    4. Thyroglobulin transport is dependent on sodium
    5. TSH receptors requiring binding of sodium to transport iodide across the basolateral membrane
    1. Will be unable to peripherally transform T4 to T3
    2. Will be unable to centrally convert iodine to iodine
    3. Will be unable to form complexes with thyroglobulin
    4. Will have low circulating levels of T4
    5. Will have low levels of tyrosine
    1. Amount of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies in serum
    2. Thyroid origin of the biopsied tissue
    3. Mass of thyroid tissue present
    4. Presence of injury to thyroid tissue
    5. Degree of TSH-R stimulation
    1. Methimazole propylthiouracil
    2. RAI
    3. Thiocyanate
    4. rT2 deiodinase
    5. Perchlorate
    1. rT2 deficiency
    2. Grave's disease
    3. Excessive anti-thyroglobulin antibodies
    4. Inhibition of peroxidase synthesis
    5. Thiocyanate overdose
    1. T4 is transformed to T3 inside the peripheral cell by peripheral deiodinase
    2. T3 is lipid soluble and enters peripheral cells passively
    3. Thyroid hormone receptor in peripheral cells are in the nucleus of the cell
    4. Thyroid hormones require a coactivator
    5. T4 must be converted to T3 by peripheral deiodinase

    Author of lecture Thyroid Hormone Function

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


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