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Ranges of Movement – Bones and Surface Anatomy of Upper Limb

by James Pickering, PhD
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    00:01 and the phalanges. And to finish I just want to talk about the various movements that is allowed to occur at the upper limb. And here we can see we have various movements occurring at the various joints. So here we've have got the sternoclavicular joint which allows a whole wide range of movements. Here we can see we have got its ability to elevate and depress the upper limb. So we have elevation, we have depression. We also have these movements known as protraction and retractions where the upper limb is allowed to the move forwards and then it's allowed to move backwards. And these movements occur at the sternoclavicular joint. We also if we have a look here, have what's known as the abduction and the adduction. Abduction is when the arm, upper limb is moved outwards so it’s moved in this direction. We have got abduction and then when the upper limb is pulled back to the trunk, we have adduction, where the upper limb is then returned to sit alongside the trunk. We have flexion and extension.

    01:07 So we have flexion of the upper limb where we can see the upper limb is going to move in this direction and then we can have extension where the upper limb can move backwards in this direction. So flexion of the upper limb at the elbow joints and then extension of the upper limb at the elbow joint. We also have what's known as internal or medial rotation and external or lateral rotation. Internal or medial rotation, we can see is where the upper limb here again at the glenohumeral joint is going to move in this direction and then external rotation is when it's going to move outwards. So we can see the limits that are allowed to occur, the movements, the limits the movements here. We can see external rotation, we can see internal rotation. These important movements.

    01:55 I've just got a picture of a scapula here because this shows nicely the upward and downward rotation.

    02:03 If you got the upward rotation of the scapula then the scapula head, here the glenoid cavity is going to move in this direction. And that is going to have the effects of pushing the inferior angles outwards like this. So as the glenoid cavity moves up like this enabling our upper limb to move upwards, as if your right upper limb is trying to scratch your left shoulder, then your glenoid cavity is going to move up like this and this means the inferior angle will move down. We also have downward rotation where if you are trying to scratch your back, then the glenoid cavity is going to be depressed, having this downward rotation and the inferior angle is going to move outwards in this direction. If we look at the forearm and movements that are occurring in the elbow joints and at the wrist again at the elbow joint here we can see we are going to have flexion, and we are going to have extension, we are going to see here we have supination and pronation where the forearm here where this what's known as the mid pronate position is going to supinate, so your palm would be facing upwards or pronating when your palm will be facing downwards. You can have abduction and adduction of your fingers. This is an important movement where your fingers can open up and they can close. So they can open up like this as we have abduction or they can come together as adduction. And this is all about a central axial line which we can see running here. So you can see that if this finger remain static then we have adduction, but we can also have abduction. And because this axial line is running in this direction you can see it is possible for this middle finger to abduct this way and also to abduct that way. Adduction is when all the fingers are returned to this axial line running down here and lying with the middle finger. Here we can see just simple flexion and extension of the wrist. So we can see extension where the wrist is going upwards and we can see here flexion of the wrist when it is going downwards. We can also see that we have flexion extension of the digits occurring at the metacarpophalangeal joints and the metacarpocarpal joints and we can have flexion and extensions of those digits as well. So a whole range of movements characterized which gives the upper limb its characteristic high level of mobility and this is created by a whole series of muscles and these muscles which we will talk about in later lectures are attached to those bony landmarks that are described.

    04:54 So we started off by looking at the surface anatomy. Looked at the various regions and then we looked at the various bony landmarks of the upper limb. So the clavicle, the scapula, the humerus, the ulnar, the radius, the carpals, the metacarpals and the phalanges. And then we finished by looking at various movements of the upper limb.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Ranges of Movement – Bones and Surface Anatomy of Upper Limb by James Pickering, PhD is from the course Upper Limb Anatomy.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Trapezoid
    2. Scaphoid
    3. Trapezium
    4. Radial styloid
    1. The conoid tubercle of the clavicle is located near its medial end.
    2. The antero-medial border of the scapula lies directly posterior to ribs 2-7.
    3. The anterior border of the clavicle is convex medially and concave laterally.
    4. The gleno-humeral joint is an articulation between the head of the humerus and a specialized region of the scaupla.
    5. The coracoid process is located on the lateral aspect of the superior border of the scapula.
    1. Trapezoid
    2. Triquetrum
    3. Scaphoid
    4. Lunate
    5. Pisiform
    1. It articulates with ulna
    2. It can be palpated in the anatomical snuff box?
    3. Is boat shaped
    4. Forms a saddle joint with trapezium
    5. Is prone to fracture in a fall on the outstretched hand

    Author of lecture Ranges of Movement – Bones and Surface Anatomy of Upper Limb

     James Pickering, PhD

    James Pickering, PhD


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