Phagocytic Cells

by Peter Delves, PhD

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    The phagocytic cells are predominantly the neutrophils and the macrophages. Neutrophils are fairly short lived. They have a half life of two to three days. They travel around the blood, but they will leave the blood if there?s an infection in the tissues. Monocytes are relatively longer lived cells. They also circulate around in the blood and they will also leave the blood if there?s an infection in the tissues. But when they leave the blood, they further differentiate into macrophages, and these are relatively long lived cells. So neutrophils, whether they?re in the blood or the tissues they?re referred to as neutrophils, whereas the blood monocyte further differentiates or develops into the tissue macrophage. In order for the blood neutrophil and the blood monocyte to exit from the blood vessel and enter the tissues, they need to bind to the blood vessel endothelium using adhesion molecules. They will then squeeze through the gaps between the blood vessel endothelial cells and be attracted into the site of the infection by a concentration gradient of chemotactic factors. The phagocytic cells use pattern recognition receptors to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns on the surface of microorganisms. The pathogen can also be coated with substances, we refer to these substances as opsonins that are additionally recognized by the phagocytic cell. This helps facilitate the binding of the microorganism to the phagocyte. There are several different substances that can act as opsonins. So for example, both the neutrophil and the macrophage have on their cell surface, as well as many, many, many other molecules, they have complement receptors that can recognize complement. So the microorganisms can be coated with complement, and this complement coating of the microorganism is recognized by the complement receptors. In other words, complement is acting as an opsonin to facilitate binding...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Phagocytic Cells by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Immune System: Overview and Cells. It contains the following chapters:

    • Phagocytic Cells
    • A Closer Look on the Phagocytic Process

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Peptidoglycan
    2. Lactoferrin
    3. Elastase
    4. Citrulline
    5. Arginine
    1. Neutrophils and Monocytes
    2. Macrophages and Monocytes
    3. Neutrophils and Macrophages
    4. Basophils and Neutrophils
    5. Monocytes and Mast cells
    1. Antibodies that have coated antigens
    2. Complement molecules on a pathogen
    3. Pathogens
    4. Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns
    5. Macrophages that have encountered an antigen
    1. Enzymatic degradation of pathogens within the phagolysosome
    2. Fusion of the phagosome with a lysosome
    3. Recognition of pathogens
    4. Invagination of phagocyte necessary to engulf organism
    5. Effective binding of a PRR to a PAMP

    Author of lecture Phagocytic Cells

     Peter Delves, PhD

    Peter Delves, PhD

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