Welcome to Pharmacology by Lecturio. My name is Dr. Shukle
and we're going to talk today about anti-viral agents.
The pharmacology of anti-viral agents is complex
so what we're going to do is we're going to take a look at how viruses get into a mammalian cell first
so that we can understand where each of these drugs work.
The first part of a viral entry is the attachment of the virus to the membrane of the cell.
This is where entry and fusion inhibitors act by inhibiting viral attachment and entry.
These drugs work very, very well in reducing the effectiveness of the virus to replicate.
The second stage of viral penetration is viral penetration.
This is where the interferon especially interferon alpha is quite effective.
The third stage is just the uncoating of the virus particle.
Now drugs like amantadine and rimantadine are very effective at preventing uncoating
and therefore replication within the cell.
Now speaking of replication, one of the first stages of replication is early protein synthesis
and then nucleic acid synthesis. In terms of nucleic acid synthesis
we can inhibit a reverse transcriptase; I'll explain what that means in a minute.
The next stage or the last stage of protein synthesis is called late protein synthesis.
This is also processing of these proteins and this process is blocked by protease inhibitors.
We packaged up the virus and send it off into the interstitium through packaging and assembly steps.
This is blocked by maturation inhibitors.
And finally, we have viral release.
Some of the neuraminidase inhibitors like those that we use in influenza act
at this stage to prevent the viral release.
So there's an overview of all of the viral drugs,
now let's deal specifically with certain disease states.
So we have, in general, anti-HIV drugs, anti-herpetic drugs, drugs that we use in the treatment
and prevention of influenza, and drugs that we use in other types of viral infections.
We're gonna focus first on the anti-HIV agents.