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HIV Infection and HIV Life Cycle– Secondary Immunodeficiency Diseases

by Peter Delves, PhD
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    So let’s now focus on the HIV virus and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV is a retrovirus and it can infect CD4+ T-cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. The HIV binds to CD4 and also to a chemokine receptor. We often use the term co-receptor for the chemokine receptor, it needs to bind to both. Here we can see on the surface of a helper T-cell, the CD4 molecule and also the chemokine receptor, CXCR4. And the HIV virus is binding to both of those receptors. The same applies to macrophages that can become infected with HIV, but here the chemokine receptor that is utilized is different. Instead of using CXCR4, the chemokine receptor CCR5 is employed as the co-receptor in addition to CD4. So in HIV infection, there is depletion of CD4+ T-cells. And this is due to a direct cytopathic effect of the virus, due to HIV gp120-mediated cytotoxicity, due to activation-induced apoptotic cell death of the infected cells, and also due to CD8+ T-cell killing of infected CD4+ cells due to recognition of peptide MHC Class I, with the peptides being derived from proteins in the HIV virus. Here we have the HIV virus bound to the surface of a T-lymphocyte. You really just need to focus on a couple of points on this slide, and they are illustrated here. The gp120 molecule on the surface of a virus; remember, when you come across these kind of designations such as gp120, it means that it’s a glycoprotein, that’s what the gp stands for, and it has molecular weight of 120,000 Daltons. That’s why it’s called gp120. And gp120 is essential for the virus to bind to the surface of the cell that it’s going to infect. And as we’ve already heard, the molecule CD4 plus a chemokine...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture HIV Infection and HIV Life Cycle– Secondary Immunodeficiency Diseases by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Immunodeficiency and Immune Deficiency Diseases. It contains the following chapters:

    • HIV Infection
    • HIV Structure
    • HIV Life Cycle
    • Progression of HIV Infection

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. CXCR4
    2. CXCR3
    3. CCR4
    4. CCR8
    5. CD8
    1. CD4+ T cells, Macrophages, and Dendritic cells
    2. CD4+ T cells, Macrophages, and NK cells
    3. CD4+ T cells, Dendritic cells, and Plasma cells
    4. CD8+ T cells, Macrophages, and Dendritic cells
    5. CD8+ T cells, Macrophages, and B cells
    1. ...macrophage phagocytosis and destruction.
    2. ...direct cytopathic effects of HIV.
    3. ...gp120-mediated cytotoxicity.
    4. ...activation induced apoptosis.
    5. ...CD8+ T cell mediated destruction due to recognition of pMHC.
    1. 1) Acute phase: death of memory CD4+ T cells 2) Viral dissemination: viremia 3) Latency 4) Chronic phase: activation of T cells, extensive death of CD4+ T cells 5) AIDS
    2. 1) Acute phase: death of memory CD4+ T cells 2) Latency 3) Viral dissemination: viremia 4) Chronic phase: activation of T cells, extensive death of CD4+ T cells 5) AIDS
    3. 1) Latency 2) Viral dissemination: viremia 3) Acute phase: death of memory CD4+ T cells 4) Chronic phase: activation of T cells, extensive death of CD4+ T cells 5) AIDS
    4. 1) Viral dissemination: viremia 2) Acute phase: death of memory CD4+ T cells 3) Latency 4) Chronic phase: activation of T cells, extensive death of CD4+ T cells 5) AIDS
    5. 1) Acute phase: death of memory CD4+ T cells 2) Viral dissemination: viremia 3) Latency 4) AIDS 5) Chronic phase: activation of T cells, extensive death of CD4+ T cells

    Author of lecture HIV Infection and HIV Life Cycle– Secondary Immunodeficiency Diseases

     Peter Delves, PhD

    Peter Delves, PhD


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