Class 2 antiarrhythmics include beta-blockers, which exert their therapeutic effects by blocking epinephrine and norepinephrine from binding to the beta-adrenergic receptors in cardiac tissue. The outcome is an antiarrhythmic effect, which results from decreased sinoatrial node activity and increased atrioventricular conduction time and refractory period. Additional effects include decreased cardiac contractility, afterload, and blood pressure. Class 2 antiarrhythmics are used in the management of atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, supraventricular tachycardia, and ventricular arrhythmias. Adverse effects include bradycardia, hypotension, bronchospasm, fluid retention, and fatigue. Beta-blockers should not be used in individuals with decompensated heart failure, shock, and severe bradycardia.