Lectures

Adrenal Functions

by Thad Wilson, PhD
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    00:00 Moving to the functions or the physiology of these various hormones.

    00:07 Let's start off with aldosterone.

    00:10 Aldosterone is important in sodium reabsorption and fluid volume.

    00:16 It's also important as it's ability to excrete excess potassium.

    00:24 Androgens are important in secondary sex characteristics as well as androstenedione can be converted to either testosterone or estrogen by peripheral tissues.

    00:42 The functions of cortisol.

    00:44 From muscle we will release glucose into the blood.

    00:49 You'll also increase the release of amino acids into the blood which increases both blood amino acid level and blood glucose level.

    00:59 Bone also will be stimulated to release calcium and that will increase blood calcium levels.

    01:07 Cortisol also has an effect on blood vessels.

    01:09 It decreases their permeability and decreases inflammation.

    01:17 There are also increases in lipids being released from adipose tissue.

    01:22 And that increases blood lipid levels.

    01:26 In the blood there's also decrease in logical responses and red blood cell number.

    01:32 Finally cortisol stimulates the appetite so you want to eat more.

    01:37 So overall, this process is really about short term needs.

    01:45 What do you need in the short term if you're stressed and you need to perform well? You need to have high blood glucose levels, blood lipid levels, blood calcium levels and you don't worry about inflammation or immunal responses.

    02:00 Why? Because you're stressed.

    02:03 You need to make sure you have enough energy at the moment and you're not worried about defending yourself over the long term.

    02:11 So, this is why glucocorticoids such as cortisol are often times used for these two purposes.

    02:19 Either to have an immediate burst of energy or there are often times exploited pharmacologically for their anti-inflammation and anti-immune responses.

    02:33 So people on immunotherapy often times are given some cortisol steroid so that this response will be blunted.

    02:41 It does have some side effects.

    02:43 Things like pregnizone and their side effects are a loss of bone mineral density, increase in appetite which allows for more storage of fat.

    02:58 The functions of epinephrine.

    03:00 Epinephrine functions are very similar to sympathetic nervous system, fight or flight responses.

    03:06 You get increases in heart rate, increases in arterial blood pressure and all the myriad of responses that are associated with this fight or flight reaction.

    03:17 Those include other items such as pupil dilation as well as getting more air into the lungs with bronchial dilation.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Adrenal Functions by Thad Wilson, PhD is from the course Endocrine Physiology.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Blood lipids
    2. Local inflammation
    3. Red blood cells
    4. Capillary permeability

    Author of lecture Adrenal Functions

     Thad Wilson, PhD

    Thad Wilson, PhD


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    By hamzah a. on 28. February 2017 for Adrenal Functions

    it's too summarized & there's not enough questions in the the qbank