Volume status is a balance between water and solutes, the majority of which is Na. Volume depletion (also known as hypovolemia) refers to a loss of both water and Na, whereas dehydration refers only to a loss of water. Dehydration is primarily caused by decreased water intake and presents with increased thirst and can progress to altered mental status and low blood pressure if severe. Volume depletion can be caused by GI losses, renal losses, bleeding, poor oral Na intake, or third spacing of fluids. The clinical presentation has relatively nonspecific symptoms but will ultimately cause low blood pressure if severe. The diagnosis of these imbalances is based on lab findings in addition to clinical symptoms and signs, which can be subtle and unreliable. Management requires differentiation between these 2 conditions. The treatment is to administer fluids with tonicity similar to those lost; isotonic fluids are used for volume depletion, and hypotonic fluids are used for dehydration.