T-Cell Immunodeficiencies: Hyper IgM Syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome and MHC Class II Deficiency – Primary Immunodeficiency

by Peter Delves, PhD

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    00:01 Examples of immunodeficiencies affecting T-cells are listed here.

    00:06 So for example, a defective gene for the CD40 ligand, or for CD40 itself, or for AID or for NEMO or for UNG, result in a condition called hyper-IgM syndrome.

    00:20 And you can read through this list for yourself.

    00:23 You can see a number of different gene defects causing a number of different consequences.

    00:32 In hyper-IgM syndrome, there is raised serum IgM and IgD.

    00:38 You’re probably thinking, hang on a minute, I thought we were talking about immunodeficiency? And yet you’re telling me that there is raised serum IgM and IgD, that there’s more.

    00:51 Hyper-IgM it sounds good doesn’t it? You got more IgM than other people.

    00:55 But the problem is, that there is very low or absent IgG, IgA and IgE.

    01:04 Most patients have an X-linked form of the hyper-IgM syndrome, in which there is a defect in the gene encoding CD40 ligand.

    01:16 Less commonly, there is a defect in the gene encoding a molecule called NEMO, which is the NF𝜅B essential modifier, sometimes known as IKKγ.

    01:30 And in some patients there is a defect in the gene encoding CD40, which is an autosomal gene or in the gene encoding the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) or in the gene encoding uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG).

    01:51 The result is recurrent bacterial infections.

    01:55 There is also a condition called Hyper-lgE Syndrome and in this condition there is immune dysregulation with an increase in the level of lgE antibody as the name suggests Hyper-lgE Syndrome.

    02:13 An increase in the number of eosinophils, B-cells and natural killer cells but a decrease in CD8+ T-cell proliferation and activation.

    02:25 There are autosomal dominant mutations in STAT3 or autosomal recessive mutations in TYK2 or DOCK8.

    02:36 STAT3 and TYK2 are involved in signaling through several different cytokine receptors.

    02:44 DOCK8 deficiency results in an effect on the actin cytoskeleton.

    02:52 As we can see here, from signaling through a pattern recognition receptor, being delivered through MyD88, DOCK8 is involved in actin cytoskeleton rearrangement.

    03:09 DiGeorge Syndrome results from mutations in the TBX1 transcription factor which is involved in embryonic development. There is a failure of the thymus to develop and of course the thymus is where T-cells develop and you need a thymus in order for T-cells to develop. So there's a defect in helper T-cells, in regulatory T-cells and in cytotoxic T-cells. And cell-mediated immune responses are undetectable. Antibody responses are also poor due to a lack of T-cell help for antibody production from B-cells.

    03:49 However, actually a complete absence of the thymus is relatively rare.

    03:53 And more commonly the situation is a partial DiGeorge syndrome where there are still some T-cells, so the thymus doesn’t fully develop but it develops enough to produce some T-cells or be it at a reduced level.

    04:09 Treatment can be by grafting neonatal thymus.

    04:19 In Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, there is a defective Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) due to a defect in the gene that encodes that protein.

    04:29 There is compromised T-cell motility, phagocyte chemotaxis, dendritic ccell trafficking and the polarization of the T-cell cytoskeleton towards B-cells during T-cell-B-cell collaboration.

    04:46 In the early phases of T-cell activation, the adhesion molecules are scattered randomly across the surface.

    04:55 However with activation of WASP by ZAP-70 there is induction of the actin cytoskeleton to form what is called an immunological synapse.

    05:07 This is essentially the T-cell receptor interacting with peptide MHC plus the CD4 or CD8 molecule and all the other associated adhesion molecules that are required for optimal stimulation.

    05:22 They all group together in the same area on the surface of the T-cell producing this so called immunological synapse. In MHC Class I deficiency you will not be surprised to hear there is a deficiency of MHC Class I. In order for MHC Class I to get to the surface of a cell it has to have a peptide sitting in its peptide binding groove.

    05:46 Without a peptide, there is no transport of MHC Class I to the cell surface.

    05:52 And MHC Class I deficiency can be caused by mutations in the genes for TAP1, or TAP2 or Tapasin.

    06:01 And each of these three molecules is required for peptide loading into the MHC Class I groove.

    06:11 So there will be no transport out of the endoplasmic reticulum and no MHC Class I on the cell surface so there will be nothing for cytotoxic T-cells to see.

    06:22 In MHC Class II deficiency, there are mutations affecting the Class II transactivator (CIITA) and this affects transcription factors controlling class II gene expression.

    06:37 Low expression of MHC Class II molecules on thymic epithelium impairs the positive selection of CD4+ T-cells.

    06:47 You'll recall that within the thymus there are these thymic education events that initially have positive selection followed by negative selection.

    06:59 And in the positive selection step, T-cells that are developing within the thymus initially, the double negative T-cells the lack of expression of CD4 and CD8 they switch on expression of these two genes to become double positive, CD4+, CD8+ T-cells.

    07:17 And then there needs to be positive selection of CD4+ T-cells to make sure that their T-cell receptor is able to recognize peptides presented by your own versions of MHC Class II, in other words self MHC.

    07:31 And if that recognition doesn’t take place, then apoptosis, programmed cell death occurs in the developing T-cells.

    07:42 So they need to be rescued from apoptosis.

    07:44 And interaction with MHC Class II on the thymic epithelial cells is what rescues them.

    07:50 And of course if there’s no MHC Class II there due to a deficiency of MHC Class II, this rescue cannot take place and therefore the CD4+ T-cells will not develop.

    08:02 Recurrent bronchopulmonary infections and chronic diarrhea occur within the first year of life in individuals with MHC Class II deficiency.

    08:14 And death from overwhelming viral infections at around about four years of age will happen unless the patients are given appropriate treatment, for example with a hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture T-Cell Immunodeficiencies: Hyper IgM Syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome and MHC Class II Deficiency – Primary Immunodeficiency by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Immunodeficiency and Immune Deficiency Diseases. It contains the following chapters:

    • Examples of Immunodeficiencies Affecting T-Cells
    • Hyper-IgM Syndrome
    • Hyper-IgE Syndrome
    • DiGeorge Syndrome
    • Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome
    • MHC Class I Deficiency
    • MHC Class II Deficiency

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. T-box transcription factor 1 (TBX1)
    2. Cluster of differentiation 40 ligand
    3. NF-kappa-B essential modulator (NEMO)
    4. Uracil N glycosylase (UNG)
    5. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)
    1. Myasthenia gravis
    2. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome -1
    3. Chronic granulomatous disease
    4. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
    5. DiGeorge syndrome
    1. Pro-T to pre-T stage
    2. Common lymphoid progenitor to the Pro-T stage
    3. Pre-T to double positive T cells
    4. Immature to mature T cells
    5. Negative selection
    1. DiGeorge syndrome
    2. Hyper-IgE syndrome
    3. Major histocompatibility complex class II deficiency
    4. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
    5. Hyper-IgM syndrome
    1. Plasma cell antibody secretion
    2. Phagocytosis
    3. T-cell motlity
    4. Dendritic cell trafficking
    5. T-cell and B-cell interaction

    Author of lecture T-Cell Immunodeficiencies: Hyper IgM Syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome and MHC Class II Deficiency – Primary Immunodeficiency

     Peter Delves, PhD

    Peter Delves, PhD

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