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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

by Peter Delves, PhD
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    00:01 Systemic lupus erythematosus is the classical non organ specific autoimmune disease.

    00:06 Like the vast majority of autoimmune diseases, there are numerous susceptibility genes involved that lead to the failure of immunological tolerance against self antigens.

    00:19 There are a number of environmental triggers.

    00:22 For example, UV radiation can cause apoptotic cell death of cells and tissues in the individual.

    00:32 These apoptotic cells are not cleared properly and there is the development of autoantibodies.

    00:41 Typical of SLE are anti-nuclear antibodies or ANA.

    00:47 And there is the development of anti-double stranded DNA, anti-histone, anti-Ro, anti-La, anti-Smith (Sm), anti-ribonucleoprotein and anti-phospholipid antibodies.

    01:02 For example, the lupus anticoagulant and anti-cardiolipin.

    01:09 These immune complexes of autoantibody and self antigen can be endocytosed by B-cells and the antigens act as DAMPS (Damage Associated Molecular Patterns) that are recognized by endosomal Pattern Recognition Receptors within the B-cells. Dendritic cells also become activated, and the activated dendritic cells secrete the type I interferons - interferon-α and interferon-β, which can help in the activation of the B-lymphocyte. So ultimately there is activation of lymphocytes and of dendritic cells, and the further production of autoantibodies.

    02:00 There’s a persistent high level anti-nuclear IgG antibody production.

    02:06 The clinical features of SLE are many because of its nature being a systemic disease.

    02:14 Immune complexes get trapped in locations in the body where there is very little space.

    02:21 For example, the glomeruli of the kidney and the small blood vessels in the skin.

    02:26 This can lead to renal failure, serosal inflammation affecting the pleura and pericardium and vasculitis.

    02:35 Thrombotic disease also occurs due to the anti-cardiolipin autoantibodies.

    02:42 And there is impaired hematopoiesis with the development of antiplatelet autoantibodies and antilymphocyte autoantibodies.

    02:52 And finally, immune complexes get deposited within the CNS.

    02:57 There are antineuronal autoantibodies leading to neurological and psychiatric morbidity.

    03:04 Here you can see the classic butterfly rash that is seen on the cheeks of an individual with SLE.

    03:11 This is due to damage to the small blood vessels in the skin of the cheeks.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune Disease.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. UV light
    2. Lodine
    3. Gliadin
    4. Penicillin
    5. Tetanus vaccine
    1. Anti-TSH
    2. ANA
    3. Anti-histone
    4. Anti-dsDNA
    5. Anti-Smith
    1. Impaired hematopoiesis
    2. Neurological morbidity
    3. Renal failure
    4. Vasculitis
    5. Pleura and pericardial serositis

    Author of lecture Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

     Peter Delves, PhD

    Peter Delves, PhD


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