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Steps Following the Acute Inflammation

by Peter Delves, PhD
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    So let’s look at what actually happens when you have an area of tissue that’s infected. So, overlying that tissue will be a blood vessel, as we can see at the top on this slide. And you’ll see a neutrophil, multilobed nucleus very typical of a neutrophil. And normally this neutrophil along with all the other white blood cells and red blood cells will be racing through the blood vessel, doesn’t need to stop. It just needs to carry on its journey. But if there’s an infection in the tissues, those neutrophils and other immune system cells need to be alerted to the fact that there’s an infection. So how does that happen? It happens by adhesion molecules becoming expressed on the blood vessel endothelium. It’s a bit like putting your hand out to stop the bus. Okay? You need to stop that neutrophil. You need to tell it, “Stop! Leave the blood vessel, get out into the tissue because there’s an infection that you need to deal with." So a variety of adhesion molecules become expressed on the blood vessel endothelium. For example: E-selectin. E-selectin gets expressed on the surface of the blood vessel endothelium in response to activating molecules that are released both by the infectious agents themselves, for example bacteria, but also by any damaged host tissues. In other words, our own cells that become damaged as a result of that infection. And the neutrophil begins to slow down in its journey, and it begins to roll along the blood vessel wall. A consequence of that is that other molecules begin to get expressed on the surface of the neutrophil. For example: a receptor for the cytokine interleukin-8. In other words, the interleukin-8 receptor. And the interleukin-8 receptor on the surface of the neutrophil can then be...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Steps Following the Acute Inflammation by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Innate Immune System. It contains the following chapters:

    • The Acute Inflammatory Response
    • The Type I Interferon Response
    • NK Cell Activating and Inhibitory Receptors

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. ICAM-1
    2. IL-8
    3. PAMP
    4. LPS
    5. IL-1ß
    1. Rolling, Activation, Adhesion, Diapedesis
    2. Activation, Rolling, Adhesion, Diapedesis
    3. Activation, Adhesion, Rolling, Diapedesis
    4. Rolling, Activation, Diapedesis, Adhesion
    5. Rolling, Adhesion, Activation, Diapedesis
    1. They stimulate cells surrounding a virus to produce proteins that prevent viral replication
    2. They attach directly to a virus, preventing it from entering cells
    3. They signal the innate immune system to response to viral antigens with phagocytes
    4. They bind to a cell that's been infected by a virus and prevent it from lysing
    5. They bind to cells surrounding the virus to prevent transmission
    1. NK cells recognize cells that are not displaying MHC Class I molecules. Host cells infected with a virus do not display MHC Class I while host tumors cells do
    2. NK cells recognize cells that are not displaying MHC Class I molecules. Host cells infected with a virus display MHC Class I while host tumors cells do not
    3. NK cells recognize cells do not recognize cells that are proliferating
    4. NK cells recognize viral antigens directly and have no way of recognizing tumor cells
    5. NK cells can only recognize cells nucleated cells and tumor cells are non-nucleated.
    1. It prevents NK cells from killing normal cells
    2. It allows NK cells to recognize cells that have been infected by a virus
    3. It prepares NK cells to destroy a cell that is not displaying MHC Class I proteins on its surface
    4. It allows NK cells to recognize non-nucleated cells
    5. It prevents NK cells from responding to cells infected by a bacterium

    Author of lecture Steps Following the Acute Inflammation

     Peter Delves, PhD

    Peter Delves, PhD


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