Lectures

Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOS)

by Carlo Raj, MD
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    Our topic here is polycystic ovarian disease. What then happens here is you may have cyst in the ovary. Notice I said “may”. It’s amazing that this condition is known as polycystic ovarian disease in current day practice but the criteria, you don’t even have to have a cyst in the ovary. So what do you have to have in polycystic ovarian disease? Let’s take a look and more importantly, who’s your patient walking through that door? Oligomenorrhea with the multiple follicular cysts. Multiple follicular cysts. So there’s a possibility that the ovaries are going to contain this follicular cyst that we just talked about. I’ll walk you through the pathogenesis of it. But remember, I’m telling you now, current day practice, you don’t necessarily have to have follicular cysts. That could be one of the criteria. Another criteria might be oligomenorrhea. You’ll have a thickened ovarian capsule. Multiple small cysts are possible. And you’ll have cortical stromal fibrosis. All of this is then going to contribute to the oligomenorrhea. What does that mean to you? That means that the time spent between the menses is much longer. So if an average menses cycle, menstrual cycle was approximately 28 days, maybe now the female is having her menses once every 35 days. Once every 40 days, right? Oligomenorrhea. What’s your problem with polycystic ovarian syndrome? Let’s say a young woman with persistent anovulation, but yet she might actually have bleeding. So what is exactly is taking place in polycystic ovarian disease and who’s your patient walking through the door? Well, since we’re doing female reproductive pathology that we have to then divide our gender into two variables. Genotypic and phenotypic. Genotypic and phenotypic. From henceforth, whenever you do reproductive pathology, you pay attention to what the genotype of your patient...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOS) by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Ovarian Diseases.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Oligomenorrhea, obesity and hirsutism
    2. Amenorrhea, generalized hair loss, and weight gain
    3. Repeated ectopic , chronic pelvic pain
    4. Fatigue, body aches, menorrhagia
    5. Alopecia, dysmenorrhea, weight loss
    1. Thickened ovarian capsule, multiple small cysts, cortico-stromal thickening
    2. Multi-loculated cysts filled with mucin
    3. Increase vascularization, thin capsule, degenerated ovarian follicles
    4. Scarred ovarian capsule, increased stromal fibrosis, absence of ovarian follicles
    5. Normal capsule and stroma, with multiple cysts containing ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal remnants
    1. LH/FSH
    2. FSH/LH
    3. Glucagon/Insulin
    4. Growth hormone/Insulin
    5. Progesterone/ Estrogen
    1. PCOS increases the risk of infertility, diabetes mellitus, and cancers of breast and ovary.
    2. PCOS increases the risk of PID and endometrial hyperplasia.
    3. PCOS increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy, leiomyoma and leimyosarcoma.
    4. PCOS increases the risk of Sheehan syndrome, infertility and hyperemesis gravidarum.
    5. PCOS increases the risk of endometrial and cervical cancers.

    Author of lecture Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOS)

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


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