The adrenal-adrenal cortex, site of synthesis,
secretion of steroid hormones, all steroid
hormones will pass through the membrane.
All steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex
are located… the receptors are located where?
In the cytoplasm, keep that in mind.
Our topic here specifically of your cortex
is going to be the cortisol, cortisol, cortisol
In pharmacology, oh my goodness, makes you
know about glucocorticoids and all of its
Big time… cortisol, prednisone… big time,
used in many conditions, aren’t they?
For example, you might use it for immunosuppression
on-on purpose, especially if you have a renal
transplant recipient or an organ transplant
Prednisone can be used for pain.
I mean, it’s-it’s... the uses of it are
Even plastic surgeons will use forms of cortisol
so that they can delay wound healing, right?
So, glucocorticoids are all over the place.
We’ll talk more later.
Increase serum glucose, what does cortisol
It is, it is a stress hormone.
If it’s a stress hormone, then what is it
going to do?
It’s going to do everything in its power
so that it increases glycolysis or gluconeogenesis?
So, therefore, it will inhibit insulin release
or it will allow for insulin resistance of
the receptors, it will break down the protein
catabolic, not anabolic.
If you ever met a… an athlete who wishes
to build up muscle by taking… well, by this…
it’s a little bit different, but here specifically
though, it’s going to break down the protein
so that you have the substrates for gluconeogenesis,
Oppose inflammatory response, thus you know
steroids inhibits what enzyme in the arachidonic
acid pathway, phospholipase a2.
Therefore, you will not have your prostaglandins
and such for inflammation, anti-inflammatory.
Potential vascular effects of catecholamines
and by that, we mean permissive effect, permissive
Now, corticoid activity, what’s going on
in the fasciculata?
When the fasciculata was a cortisol, the glomerulosa
would be your aldosterone.
If you’re not familiar with the picture
of your glomerulosa, go back to the previous
illustration and there, I showed you aldosterone
Angiotensin II, which was converted from angiotensin
I to angiotensin II by the ace enzyme in your
lung, responsible for releasing your aldosterone.
That would be your number one feedback, do
not ever forget that.
And what does it do?
Mineralocorticoid is going to reabsorb sodium
and water from your collecting duct to principal
Obviously, with this, the discussion takes
you into the sodium potassium pump and also
ENaC referring to epithelium-sodium channel
and aldosterone can work on both to reabsorb
In the reticularis, we have DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone.
As a general theme, here we have androgens
Here are the major secretagogue will still
be ACTH, remember that you will be forming
If at any point in time, we have an enzyme
deficiency, increased activity of reticularis,
then you have something called virilisation
of your female, what does that mean to you?
She might have excess acne, she might have
increased muscle mass like that of a male
and the most important sign of virilisation
will be enlargement of the clitoris, clitoromegaly.
What about the adrenal medulla?
The adrenal medulla basically has one function
that you want to keep in mind, it’s responsible
for catecholamine synthesis, specifically