Osteoporosis: Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis

by Carlo Raj, MD

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    Clinical presentation: Most patients may be in some... asymptomatic until there is a massive fracture of either the vertebrae or maybe perhaps the hip that I had mentioned earlier. There are greater than one inch loss of height; kyphosis because of issues within the vertebrae and with that kyphosis may then cause restriction of your thoracic cavity, thoracic cage. So, therefore, breathing becomes difficult; may result in even restrictive lung disease because of literally physical, mechanical restriction of your lung. Focused exam looking for signs of secondary causes, always is in endocrinopathy; is your patient corticoid, so on and so forth. Imaging: plain film, not sensitive for detecting early disease... not early on, your bone may actually still look rather normal. Lateral films used for-for visualizing spine compression fractures. Remember osteopenia, would mean decreased or thinning out of your trabeculae. There?s something called dual-energy X-ray absorp-absorptiometry known as the DXA scan. So, DXA scan, calculated bone mineralized density; bottom-line, that?s what a DXA scan will do. It will find out as to how dense your bone is. So, therefore, once, let?s say a female, has hit menopause, you can expect the DXA scan to show you decreased bone density. Measures bone-bone density; mineralization at the spine and your hip, two major sites that you worried about major fractures in a patient with osteoporosis. Low bone mineralization density correlates with increased risk of fracture. Results express in the following two scores: we have a T-score. You want to be at least familiar with what these mean and when you would even use this or apply this. A T-score will be used in a patient who you suspect an osteoporosis with your bone mineralization density, expressed in number of standard deviation above or below the mean of normal 30-year old patient. Then...

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    The lecture Osteoporosis: Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Bone Disease.

    Author of lecture Osteoporosis: Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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