skeleton via the pectoral girdle and we can
see that in the next few slides.
We can see here, we have the axial skeleton. So
this axial skeleton down here can constitute your
vertebral column. We can see radiating from
your vertebral column we have the ribs and
these all form parts of your axial skeleton.
Attaching to the axial skeleton for the upper
limb is the clavicle and the clavicle forms part
of the appendicular skeleton. The appendicular
skeleton, the upper limb in this case, the
superior appendicular skeleton is connected
to the axial skeleton by way of just one joint.
This joint that exists between the medial
end of the clavicle and the sternum, the sternoclavicular
joint. This is the only joint that allows
the superior appendicular skeleton to articulate
with the axial skeleton and this small joint
enables a high range of movement. So the superior
appendicular skeleton, the upper limb therefore
has this wide range of movements. So If
we look at this appendicular skeleton
in more detail, this is the superior appendicular
skeleton, the upper limb. The lower limb
would be your inferior appendicular skeleton.
And we can see here i have mentioned
this before, it includes a whole series of bones.
We have got the clavicle which we can see
here. The clavicle, this medial end of the
clavicle attaching to the sternum and then
we have the scapula which we can see here, this
flat triangular-shaped bone that lies alongside
the posterior aspect of the ribs. We can then
see we have got this long bone here which
is the humerus. The humerus is articulating
with the glenoid cavity of the scapula forming
the glenohumeral or shoulder joint. And then
we have this long humerus that articulates with
both the radius and the ulna to form the
elbow joint. We can then see we have two long
bones in the forearm, the radius and the ulna.
The radius being lateral to the ulna, the
ulna is medial. And we can see that the radius
and the ulna articulate with the carpal bones
at the wrist and you can see we will discuss the
various radiocarpal joints in later lectures.
Here we can see a cluster of these 8 carpal bones and
it constitutes the wrist joint. They articulate
with a series of long bones here which are
known as the metacarpals and the metacarpals
are allowed for articulation with some small
bones here called phalanges and these form
the joints of your fingers or the joints in
your hand and they have a number of these,
we can see in fingers 2, 3, 4, and 5 we have
3 phalanges and in digit 1, the thumb,
we have 2. And this allows us to manipulate
objects so we can move our fingers into various
different positions due to this high number
of phalanges within the fingers.