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Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Guillain-Bárre Syndrome (GBS) – Autoimmune Diseases

by Peter Delves, PhD
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    Multiple sclerosis affects the CNS and here we have a image showing the microglia in the CNS and the infiltration of T lymphocytes from the blood vessels into the CNS. Now normally there is a blood brain barrier, but in multiple sclerosis and another-- a number of other conditions, this blood brain barrier can become compromised and inflammatory cells can enter the CNS. Th1 cells will secrete gamma interferon leading to the activation of macrophages. These macrophages can secrete tumor necrosis factor-α. Also Th1 cells can help to activate cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. And again these cytotoxic T-lymphocytes can attack the myelin sheath of the nerve cells in the CNS. Astrocytes which are antigen presenting cells within the CNS which can present peptides to Th2 cells will be involved in this process. And the Th2 cells can help B-cells to differentiate into plasma cells and produce autoantibodies. The autoantibodies that are produced include anti-myelin basic protein, anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, anti-myelin associated glycoprotein and anti-proteolipid protein. In this magnetic resonance image of the brain, from a patient with multiple sclerosis, we can see the typical periventricular demyelination plaques caused by this autoimmune attack. Guillain-Barre syndrome occurs following an infection with a variety of different organisms. For example, Campylobacter. The autoantibodies are against peripheral nerve gangliosides. And these are thought to arise due to molecular mimicry. There is an acute inflammatory neuropathy with symmetrical weakness of the extremities. Complement activation results in neuronal damage. And in approximately 25% of patients, there is a respiratory insufficiency that develops. So here you can see an antigen presenting cell interacting with Th2 cells. Those Th2 cells will help activate B-lymphocytes to develop into plasma cells and produce autoantibodies. Those autoantibodies can also then go on and activate complement, leading to the generation of the membrane attack complex,...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Guillain-Bárre Syndrome (GBS) – Autoimmune Diseases by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune Disease. It contains the following chapters:

    • Multiple Sclerosis
    • Guillain-Barré Syndrome
    • Myasthenia Gravis

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. 25 %
    2. 1 %
    3. 5 %
    4. 10 %
    5. 50 %
    1. Th1 and Th2 cells that lead to the degradation of myelin and anti-myelin autoantibodies
    2. Deposition of anti-myelin autoantibodies into brain tissue
    3. Infiltration of pathogens (bacteria, viruses) which leads to a damaging immune clearing response
    4. Autoantibodies against glycoproteins in the body to affect CNS glycoproteins
    5. Increased inflammation and intracranial pressure
    1. Damaging/destroying ACh receptors as well as autoantibodies that block the remaining receptors
    2. Inhibition of release of ACh
    3. Blockage of ACh receptors by autoantibodies to ACh
    4. Stimulatory autoantibody effect on ACh receptor that results in muscle fatigue
    5. Autoantibodies against the up- and downregulating mechanisms of the ACh receptor

    Author of lecture Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Guillain-Bárre Syndrome (GBS) – Autoimmune Diseases

     Peter Delves, PhD

    Peter Delves, PhD


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