Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS)

by Peter Delves, PhD

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    00:01 Multiple sclerosis affects the CNS and here we have a image showing the microglia in the CNS and the infiltration of T lymphocytes from the blood vessels into the CNS.

    00:19 Now normally there is a blood brain barrier, but in multiple sclerosis and another-- a number of other conditions, this blood brain barrier can become compromised and inflammatory cells can enter the CNS.

    00:36 Th1 cells will secrete gamma interferon leading to the activation of macrophages.

    00:47 These macrophages can secrete tumor necrosis factor-α.

    00:52 Also Th1 cells can help to activate cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.

    01:00 And again these cytotoxic T-lymphocytes can attack the myelin sheath of the nerve cells in the CNS.

    01:10 Astrocytes which are antigen presenting cells within the CNS which can present peptides to Th2 cells will be involved in this process.

    01:21 And the Th2 cells can help B-cells to differentiate into plasma cells and produce autoantibodies.

    01:32 The autoantibodies that are produced include anti-myelin basic protein, anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, anti-myelin associated glycoprotein and anti-proteolipid protein.

    01:48 In this magnetic resonance image of the brain, from a patient with multiple sclerosis, we can see the typical periventricular demyelination plaques caused by this autoimmune attack.

    02:07 Guillain-Barre syndrome occurs following an infection with a variety of different organisms.

    02:15 For example, Campylobacter.

    02:20 The autoantibodies are against peripheral nerve gangliosides.

    02:26 And these are thought to arise due to molecular mimicry.

    02:30 There is an acute inflammatory neuropathy with symmetrical weakness of the extremities.

    02:37 Complement activation results in neuronal damage.

    02:42 And in approximately 25% of patients, there is a respiratory insufficiency that develops.

    02:49 So here you can see an antigen presenting cell interacting with Th2 cells.

    02:55 Those Th2 cells will help activate B-lymphocytes to develop into plasma cells and produce autoantibodies.

    03:04 Those autoantibodies can also then go on and activate complement, leading to the generation of the membrane attack complex, consistent of complement components C5b, C6, C7, C8 and C9.

    03:19 And this will cause damage to the Schwann cells.

    03:27 In myasthenia gravis, which is characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue, there are autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor.

    03:38 There is loss or damage to receptors which is caused by complement activation.

    03:47 The autoantibodies can also block the binding of acetylcholine to the receptor.

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune Disease. It contains the following chapters:

    • Multiple Sclerosis
    • Guillain-Barré Syndrome
    • Myasthenia Gravis

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. 25%
    2. 1%
    3. 5%
    4. 10%
    5. 50%
    1. Myelin basic protein
    2. Myeloperoxidase
    3. Acetylcholine receptor
    4. Glycoproteins 120
    5. Nuclear receptor
    1. Antibodies block acetylcholine receptors.
    2. Antibodies stimulate acetylcholine receptors.
    3. Antibodies inhibit acetylcholinesterase.
    4. Antibodies stimulate acetylcholinesterase.
    5. Antibodies inhibit secretion of acetylcholine.

    Author of lecture Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS)

     Peter Delves, PhD

    Peter Delves, PhD

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