and distal phalanges. Now let’s look at some
of the movements that we have occurring
at the lower limb. Here we can see movements
that were occurring at the hip joints.
We have flexion and we have extension. We can
see the hip joint being flexed in this direction,
and then being extended as it’s returned to the
standing position, and then hyperextended
backwards in this direction. We can see we
have abduction and adduction possible.
We have abduction, the leg is moved away from
the midline, and we have adduction, we can
see it’s brought towards the midline. And
it’s actually possible of going across the
midline and across the other standing leg. Here
we can we have lateral
and medial rotation occurring where the leg
is turned inwards towards the body, lateral
rotation, and it’s also turned outwards away
from the body medial rotation.
We can see at the knee joint, we can continue to
have flexion and extension where we see the
knee is fully extended. Here, we can see it
goes straight on from the thigh, and we can
see it’s flexed when the heel is brought
towards the posterior surface of the thigh.
Again, we can see we have medial and lateral
rotation of the knee where the foot is turned
either inwards or is turned outwards, medial
and lateral rotation. If we look at the ankle
joints, we can see we have dorsiflexion where
your heel is on the floor and your toes are
lifted upwards. And we have plantar flexion
where your heel is lifted upwards and your
forefoot, your toes, are depressed onto the floor.
We can see we have inversion and eversion.
This is again occurring at the ankle joints.
With inversion, the big toe, your number 1
toe is lifted up and your little toe, digit
5, is remaining on the floor. And conversely
with eversion, you have your great toe, number
1, remaining on the floor, whereas, your little
toe, digit number 5, is lifted up inversion
and eversion. If we then look at the toes,
you’ll see because we have the interosseous
muscles which we’ll later on describe,
that the toes is possible to abduct and adduct these
individual digits. Along with this movement,
there’s also a flexion and extension so
you can dorsiflex and you can plantarflex your digits.
So in this lecture, we’ve looked
at the surface anatomy of the lower limb,
the inferior appendicular skeleton, we've looked
at the gluteal, thigh, leg, and foot regions.
And then we’ve looked at the osteology of
the lower limb. We’ve looked at the gluteal
region where we had the ischium, the pubis,
and the ilium of the hip bone. We looked at
the thigh with the femur, the leg and the
tibia, fibula. And then the foot looking at
the tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges, and
looking at some bony landmarks on these bones.
And then to finish, we briefly looked at the
movement of the lower limb.