Monoclonal Antibodies and Nonspecific Immunotherapy

by Peter Delves, PhD

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    There are a number of ways of harnessing the immune system to attack tumors - non-specific immunotherapy, the use of other types of monoclonal antibodies, cell transfer, gene therapy and vaccines. Looking at non-specific immunotherapy, there are a number of agents that are very beneficial in the treatment of tumors. Interferon-α is used in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma, hairy cell leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia and melanoma. Interleukin-2 has utility in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and melanomas. And BCG can be used in the treatment of melanoma, superficial bladder carcinoma, acute myeloblastic leukemia, ovarian carcinoma and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Here are some examples of monoclonal antibodies used for the treatment of cancer. I’m not going to read through this whole list. You can see yourself that these various monoclonal antibodies can target molecules such as VEGF, RANKL, GD2, CTLA-4, PD-1 and so forth. We’ve already mentioned PD-1. So as you can see, there are a variety of different monoclonal antibodies that are available targeting a number of different molecules. And these have been approved by the FDA for use in a variety of different tumors. As well as using antibodies on their own to fight tumors, for example by blocking the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1. One can use monoclonals to deliver a toxic molecule to the tumor. And we have three examples here. Brentuximab vedotin is a monoclonal antibody that is targeted to CD30 which is present on the surface of a number of tumor cells. And this antibody is conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E, which is an antimitotic agent. So the antibody delivers specifically to the tumor because the tumor cell has this molecule CD30 on its cell surface. The antibody acts to target the antimitotic agent to the tumor cell. This has been approved for...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Monoclonal Antibodies and Nonspecific Immunotherapy by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Tumor Immunology. It contains the following chapters:

    • Harnessing the Immune System to Attack Tumors
    • Nonspecific Immunotherapy
    • Monoclonal Antibodies
    • Adoptive Cell Transfer

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. CD25
    2. CD20
    3. CD30
    4. GD2
    5. RANKL
    1. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
    2. Melanoma
    3. Karposi Sarcoma
    4. Hairy Cell Leukemia
    5. CML
    1. The monoclonal antibody targets proteins on the cell surface of tumor cells, allowing for more efficient delivery of medication toxic to the cell
    2. Enhances the chemotherapeutic effect by utilizing synergistic drug relationships
    3. The monoclonal antibody allows the chemotactic agent to evade the immune system of the patient
    4. The monoclonal antibody allows the chemotactic agent to be taken up by Dendritic cells, causing activation of T cells that target the tumor
    5. The monoclonal antibody induces antibody production by host plasma cells
    1. More efficient tumor antigen recognition with addition of gene sequences that will aid in the destruction of tumor cells
    2. Proliferation of the patient's own T lymphocytes
    3. More efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic agents
    4. Up-regulation of CD8+ T cells and complement activation
    5. Production of monoclonal antibodies by the patient's own immune system

    Author of lecture Monoclonal Antibodies and Nonspecific Immunotherapy

     Peter Delves, PhD

    Peter Delves, PhD

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