by Carlo Raj, MD

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    Our topic still continues with hypoparathyroidism. Botched thyroidectomy… apart from where the patient initially might have started with primary hyperparathyroidism and there might have been inadvertent, excessive pyrothyroidectomy resulting in hypoparathyroidism. If the patient is required to have a thyroidectomy because of its proximity to the parathyroids may result in excess or collateral damage to the parathyroids rendering your patient hypoparathyroid, hypocalcemic. Congenital deficiency... here, you should be thinking about DiGeorge syndrome. You have your chromosome 22, a long arm 11 deletion, therefore third and fourth pharyngeal pouches are missing, no parathyroids are present. In addition, the third pharyngeal pouch responsible for developing the inferior parathyroids, the patient, the child is hypocalcemic; in addition, the thalamus does not form properly. Therefore; look for a child that is suffering from tetany, hypocalcemia; result in tetany, muscle twitching. In addition, there might be recurrent infection. Usually, it will be the viral type; malformed third and fourth pharyngeal pouches resulting in hypoparathyroidism. Abnormal facies, sometimes with your chromosome 22, you want to be familiar with the syndrome congenitally that the boards love asking about called velocardiofacial abnormalities. The velocardiofacial abnormalities may result in facies issue, congenital heart defects and cognitive behavior and psychiatric problems, autism. Velocardiofacial issues with chromosome 22, something that you want to know from a embryologic, pathologic point of view. Increased susceptibility to infection, why is that? Because the thalamus may not be present, inadequate education of your T-cells, therefore rendering the patient susceptible to infection, the child. Idiopathic, autoimmune disease and then familial hypoparathyroidism, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is something that you want to keep in mind when dealing with familial hypoparathyroidism. Differentials of hypoparathyroidism, clinical features include the following: whenever there is decrease in parathyroid, there will obviously be decrease in calcium and therefore, the muscle, the skeletal muscle...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Hypoparathyroidism by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Parathyroid Gland Disorders.

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. 22q11 deletion
    2. 11q9 deletion
    3. Trisomy 15
    4. 17q point mutation
    5. XXY karyotype
    1. 3rd and 4th branchial pouch derivatives
    2. Bilateral adrenal glands
    3. Rathke's pouch derivatives
    4. Mesodermal structures of the head and neck
    5. Structures of the lung derived from neural crest cells
    1. Tetany with neuromuscular irritability
    2. Mental status changes
    3. Circumoral numbness
    4. Osteosclerosis
    5. Carpopedal spasm

    Author of lecture Hypoparathyroidism

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD

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