Lectures

Breast Abnormalities

by Carlo Raj, MD
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    00:01 Here in female reproductive pathology, our focus shall be breast pathology.

    00:06 We’ll be looking at the entire breast apparatus and remember that it’s not just breast cancer that is important for you to know, it’s all about all the different things that may occur in terms of injury and the changes that might take place even during the menstrual cycle.

    00:19 Let’s begin.

    00:22 We’ll begin our topic of breast pathology by actually looking at developmental disorders.

    00:26 Here, we have supernumerary nipple or breasts.

    00:29 What ends up happening here is a result from persistence of epidermal thickening along the milk line.

    00:36 It can extend from the axilla to the perineum.

    00:40 Picture that.

    00:41 This is referred to as being your supernumerary nipple or breast.

    00:46 We have another important developmental disorder.

    00:48 Quickly here, we have accessory axillary breast tissue.

    00:51 As the name very much implies, we have part of the breast, which is now extending over the entire anterolateral chest wall and into the axillary fossa.

    01:02 You want to kind of think of this analogous to how the thyroid gland perhaps, ectopically, when it’s trying to develop and migrate from the foramen cecum down to where it nestles in the neck, that there might be ectopic remnants as well.

    01:14 Along the same line here, we have accessory axilla breast tissue.

    01:22 Congenital inversion of nipples: Clinically significant when it impairs nursing.

    01:26 That’s where it becomes really important.

    01:28 For example, a newborn is about to suckle and, well, the nipples are inverted.

    01:34 As you are aware, it becomes clinically significant especially for the child as you can imagine.

    01:40 You have a condition called macromastia.

    01:42 Women develop back pain to the point where the breasts are so large that it actually causes straining of the back.

    01:48 So therefore, your recommendation and your first line of management here would be to to recommend those bras that have improved or increased support so that the prevention of back pain can be taking place.

    02:00 Remember you’re practicing preventive medicine versus actual -- well, if it occurs too late, then so be it, but you're paying very close attention to the patient’s symptoms, you're examining them and you have to be astute with what may happen in the future.

    02:17 Maybe due to the body habitus, to tissue response to hormonal changes during puberty is the pathogenesis of macromastia.

    02:25 The consequences however might be back pain.

    02:28 Supportive bras is a practical recommendation.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Breast Abnormalities by Carlo Raj, MD is from the course Breast Disease.


    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Supportive bra
    2. Breast reduction
    3. Bottle feeding
    4. Bed rest
    5. Combined oral contraceptives
    1. Inverted nipples
    2. Macromastia
    3. Supernumerary breast
    4. Supernumerary nipples
    5. Accessory axillary breast tissue

    Author of lecture Breast Abnormalities

     Carlo Raj, MD

    Carlo Raj, MD


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