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Bacterial Meningitis: Definition

by John Fisher, MD
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    00:01 We turn now in our discussion of central nervous system infections to bacterial meningitis, a very serious infection indeed.

    00:13 So, we would define bacterial meningitis as an infection of the meninges, of the coverings of the brain, specifically the subarachnoid space and brain as well.

    00:27 It's really a meningoencephalitis, usually due to any of a variety of blood-borne microorganisms.

    00:41 Now, among the causes of acute meningitis, actually viruses probably account for most cases of acute infection of the meninges, but viral meningitis is generally a benign disease.

    00:57 It’s not terribly serious.

    00:59 It’s troubling for the patient, but they get over this kind of an infection.

    01:04 But blood-borne bacteria can cause a life-threatening problem.

    01:10 Now, when a physician can't tell which it is, is it viral or is it bacterial, then that physician would be prudent to start antibiotics just in case it is bacterial.

    01:26 Now, among the bacteria that cause meningitis – and there are many – these are the top five.

    01:34 Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus agalactiae also known as group B Strep, Listeria monocytogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae.

    01:50 Haemophilus influenzae was the most common cause of meningitis in the past, but because we now have a vaccine against that particular organism, Haemophilus influenzae type B, it is no longer the most common cause of meningitis.

    02:14 Now, turning to the epidemiology, we need to look at the causes of meningitis first among newborns.

    02:23 And here, group B Strep, Strep agalactiae accounts for about 70% of the infections of the meninges, followed by Listeria and by the pneumococcus.

    02:37 From one month to two years of age, look what is now top cause.

    02:43 Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    02:44 As I mentioned, in the past, it was Haemophilus influenzae, but that has essentially vanished in developed countries.

    02:53 Neisseria meningitidis and Strep agalactiae follow behind.

    02:59 From the age of two to the age of young adults, Neisseria meningitidis causes about 60% of the cases of meningitis, followed by the pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae.

    03:16 In adults, the pneumococcus tops the list, causing 60%, with Neisseria meningitidis causing 20% and the others are relatively rare causes.

    03:30 But by the age of 60 years plus, the pneumococcus accounts for most cases of bacterial meningitis and Listeria moves up the list, accounting for about 20%.


    About the Lecture

    The lecture Bacterial Meningitis: Definition by John Fisher, MD is from the course CNS Infection—Infectious Diseases. It contains the following chapters:

    • Bacterial Meningitis - Definition
    • Epidemiology

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. Streptococcus agalactiae
    2. Neisseria meningitidis
    3. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    4. Listeria monocytogenes
    5. Haemophilus influenza
    1. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    2. Neisseria meningitidis
    3. Streptococcus agalctiae
    4. Listeria monocytogenes
    5. Haemophilus influenzae
    1. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    2. Neisseria meningitidis
    3. Group B streptococcus
    4. Listeria monocytogenes
    5. Streptococcus agalactiae
    1. A virus
    2. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    3. Streptoccus agalactiae
    4. Listeria monocytogenes
    5. haemophilus influenzae
    1. Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus)
    2. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    3. Group B streptococcus
    4. Listeria monocytogenes
    5. Haemophilus influenzae
    1. It constitutes an infection of the subarachnoid space and the brain
    2. It constitutes an infection of the meninges only
    3. In constitutes an infection of the subarachnoid space only
    4. It constitutes an infection of the brain tissue only
    5. Much like viral meningitis, it is a benign and self-limited disease

    Author of lecture Bacterial Meningitis: Definition

     John Fisher, MD

    John Fisher, MD


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    By Javier C. on 01. June 2018 for Bacterial Meningitis: Definition

    a lot of help a lot of help a lot of help ssssssssssssssssss

     
    very specific and helpful for exam.
    By Iftakhar A. on 06. March 2018 for Bacterial Meningitis: Definition

    crystal clear concept.very helpful lecturer.His voice is also very attractive.