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Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia – Autoimmune Diseases

by Peter Delves, PhD
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    Looking at autoimmune hemolytic anemia, one can identify two types of autoantibody. The cold antibodies are anti red blood cell autoantibodies that only bind at significantly below normal body temperature. And therefore the extremities are particularly affected. These antibodies are usually of the IgM class. In contrast, the warm type antibodies found in autoimmune hemolytic anemia are anti red blood cell autoantibodies that bind at normal body temperatures. And these are usually of the IgG class. Following binding of IgM or IgG autoantibodies to the surface of the red blood cells, the classical pathway of complement can become activated leading to the generation of the membrane attack complex. This will cause lysis of the red blood cells. In addition, phagocytic cells with Fc receptors on their cell surface can take up erythrocytes that have been coated with antibody, and this again will lead to the destruction of those red blood cells. One can test for the presence of these autoantibodies using a test called the Coombs test. And there are two different versions of this test. In the direct test, one takes a blood sample from the patient and looks for the presence of autoantibodies that are already coating the red blood cells. And one detects the presence of these autoantibodies that have already coated the red blood cells, using a second antibody - an anti-human immunoglobulin. This will cross link together the antibodies on the surface of the red blood cells causing agglutination which can be visualized by the eye. In the indirect test, one looks for the presence of the autoantibody itself, free autoantibody that is not bound to the erythrocytes. One can take this antibody from the serum of patients, mix it with red blood cells. And if the autoantibody has specificity for red blood cells, this...

    About the Lecture

    The lecture Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia – Autoimmune Diseases by Peter Delves, PhD is from the course Hypersensitivity and Autoimmune Disease. It contains the following chapters:

    • Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
    • Pernicious Anemia
    • Autoimmune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Included Quiz Questions

    1. IgM
    2. IgG
    3. IgA
    4. IgD
    5. IgE
    1. Anti-RBC autoantibody that is already bound to RBCs using an anti-Human Ig
    2. Destroyed or damaged RBCs
    3. Free anti-RBC autoantibody in serum that is mixed with RBCs
    4. An exaggerated antibody response to anti-Human Ig
    5. Anti-RBC autoantibody by injecting patient with anti-human Ig
    1. Anti-Intrinsic factor and Anti-parietal cell H+K+ ATPase
    2. Anti-B12 and Anti-Intrinsic factor
    3. Anti-B12 and Anti-parietal cell H+K+ ATPase
    4. Anti-Human Ig and Anti-Intrinsic factor
    5. Anti-parietal cell and Anti-Human Ig
    1. GPIIb-IIIa
    2. Fcγ
    3. Intrinsic factor
    4. GPx-IIb
    5. IgM

    Author of lecture Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia – Autoimmune Diseases

     Peter Delves, PhD

    Peter Delves, PhD


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